pH-responsive calcium alginate hydrogel laden with protamine nanoparticles and hyaluronan oligosaccharide promotes diabetic wound healing by enhancing angiogenesis and antibacterial activity
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Diabetic wounds as chronic wounds represent a severe, persistent complication of diabetes and, in the most extreme cases, can lead to amputation. Two critical and unfavorable factors affecting diabetic wound healing are sustained bacterial-induced chronic inflammation and disrupted vascularization. In this paper, we presented a novel, pH-responsive calcium alginate hydrogel laden with protamine nanoparticles and hyaluronan oligosaccharides, and explored its potential for accelerating diabetic wound healing. A thorough investigation indicated that the drug- and nanoparticle-loaded hydrogel demonstrated strong bactericidal behavior mediated by protamine nanoparticles and reduced bacterial-induced chronic inflammation at the wound site. Furthermore, it accelerated the wound-healing process by promoting angiogenesis in skin wounds with the hyaluronan oligosaccharide-mediated enhanced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor.
KeywordsDiabetes Bacterial Inflammation Calcium alginate hydrogel Protamine Nanoparticles
English-language editing of this manuscript was provided by Journal Prep.
Compliance with ethical standards
All animal studies were conducted according to the regulations for animal experimentation issued by the State Committee of Science and Technology of the People’s Republic of China.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
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