Multi-Component and Multi-Point Trace Gas Sensing in Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy Based on Wavelength Stabilization

  • Zongliang WangEmail author
  • Jun Chang
  • Huishan Yu
  • Cunwei Tian
  • Hao Zhang
  • Xiukun Zhang
  • Longfei Tang
  • Qinduan Zhang
  • Yiwen Feng
Open Access


Multi-component and multi-point trace gas sensing in the wavelength modulation spectroscopy is demonstrated based on the frequency-division multiplexing and time-division multiplexing technology. A reference photodetector is connected in series with a reference gas cell with the constant concentration to measure the second-harmonics peak of the components for wavelength stabilization in real time. The central wavelengths of the distributed feedback lasers are locked to the target gas absorption centers by the reference second-harmonics signal using a digital proportional-integral-derivative controller. The distributed feedback lasers with different wavelengths and modulation frequencies are injected into the gas cell to achieve multi-components gas measurement by the frequency-division multiplexing technology. In addition, multi-point trace gas sensing is achieved by the time-division multiplexing technology using a photoswitch and a relay unit. We use this scheme to detect methane (CH4) at 1650.9 nm and water vapor (H2O) at 1368.597 nm as a proof of principle with the gas cell path length of 10 cm. The minimum detection limits achieved for H2O and CH4 are 1.13 ppm and 11.85 ppm respectively, with three-point gas cell measurement; thus 10.5-fold and 10.1-fold improvements are achieved in comparison with the traditional wavelength modulation spectroscopy. Meanwhile, their excellent R-square values reach 0.9983 and 0.99564 for the concentration ranges of 500 ppm to 2000 ppm and 800 ppm to 2700 ppm, respectively.


Wavelength modulation spectroscopy wavelength stabilization multi-point multi-component trace gas sensing 



This work was supported by the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Liao Cheng University (Grant No. 318051543) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61475085).


  1. [1]
    S. Rasi, A. Veijanen, and J. Rintala, “Trace compounds of biogas from different biogas production plants,” Energy, 2007, 32(8): 1375–1380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    X. Chen, J. Chang, F. P. Wang, Z. L. Wang, W. Wei, Y. Y. Liu, et al., “A portable analog lock-in amplifier for accurate phase measurement and application in high-precision optical oxygen concentration detection,” Photonic Sensors, 2017, 7(1): 27–36.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    X. G. Niu, X. Huang, Z. Zhao, Y. H. Zhang, C. C. Huang, and L. Cui, “The design and evaluation of a wireless sensor network for mine safety monitoring,” in Proceeding of IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, Washington, DC, USA, 2007, pp. 1291–1295.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    J. P. SUN, “Mine safety monitoring and control technology and system,” Coal Science and Technology, 2010, 38(10): 1–4.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    M. G. Allen, “Diode laser absorption sensors for gas-dynamic and combustion flows,” Measurement Science and Technology, 1998, 9(4): 545–562.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Y. Liu, E. Koep, and M. L. Liu, “A highly sensitive and fast-responding SnO2 sensor fabricated by combustion chemical vapor deposition,” Chemistry of Materials, 2005, 17(15): 3997–4000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    Q. D. Zhang, J. Chang, Z. L. Wang, F. P. Wang, F. T. Jiang, and M. Y. Wang, “SNR improvement of QEPAS system by preamplifier circuit optimization and frequency locked technique,” Photonic Sensors, 2018, 8(2): 127–133.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Z. R. Zhang, T. Pang, Y. Yang, H. Xia, X. J. Cui, P. S. Sun, et al., “Development of a tunable diode laser absorption sensor for online monitoring of industrial gas total emissions based on optical scintillation cross-correlation technique,” Optics Express, 2016, 24(10): A943–A955.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    L. Dong, F. K. Tittel, C. Li, N. P. Sanchez, H. Wu, C. Zheng, et al., “Compact TDLAS based sensor design using interband cascade lasers for mid-ir trace gas sensing,” Optics Express, 2016, 24(6): A528–A535.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    K. Sun, X. Chao, R. Sur, C. S. Goldenstein, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Analysis of calibration-free wavelength-scanned wavelength modulation spectroscopy for practical gas sensing using tunable diode lasers,” Measurement Science & Technology, 2013, 24(12): 5203–338.ADSGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    B. Tao, Z. Y. Hu, W. Fan, S. Wang, J. F. Ye, and Z. R. Zhang, “Novel method for quantitative and real-time measurements on engine combustion at varying pressure based on the wavelength modulation spectroscopy,” Optics Express, 2017, 25(16): A762–A776.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    G. Stewart, J. R. P. Bain, K. Ruxton, K. Duffin, M. Lengden, and W. Johnstone, “Recovery of absolute gas absorption line shapes using tunable diode laser spectroscopy with wavelength modulation—part 2: experimental investigation,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, 2011, 29(7): 987–996.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    S. Eich, E. Schmälzlin, and H. G. Löhmannsröben, “Distributed fiber optical sensing of molecular oxygen with OTDR,” SPIE, 2010, 7726: 77260A-1–77260A-8.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    S. Eich, E. Schmälzlin, and H. G. Löhmannsröben, “Distributed fiber optical sensing of oxygen with optical time domain reflectometry,” Sensors, 2013, 13: 7170–7183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    C. Sun, Y. P. Chen, G. Zhang, F. Wang, G. S. Liu, and J. J. Ding, “Multipoint remote methane measurement system based on spectrum absorption and reflective TDM,” IEEE Photonic Technology Letters, 2016, 28: 2487–2490.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Z. H. Liu, Y. Wei, Y. Zhang, Y. S. Wang, E. M. Zhao, Y. X. Zhang, et al., “A multi-channel fiber SPR sensor based on TDM technology,” Sensors And Actuators B: Chemical, 2016, 226: 326–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    Y. He, Y. F. Ma, Y. Tong, X. Yu, Z. F. Peng, J. Gao, et al., “Long distance, distributed gas sensing based on micro-nano fiber evanescent wave quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Applied Physics Letters, 2017, 111(24): 241102-1–241102-4.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    L. Yu, T. Liu, K. Liu, J. Jiang, and T. Wang, “Intracavity multigas detection based on multiband fiber ring laser,” Sensors & Actuators B: Chemical, 2016, 226: 170–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    H. Wu, L. Dong, X. Liu, H. D. Zheng, X. K. Yin, W. G. Ma, et al., “Fiber-amplifier-enhanced QEPAS sensor for simultaneous trace gas detection of NH3 and H2S,” Sensors, 2015, 15(10): 26743–26755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, H. J. Jost, and M. L. Fischer, “Mid-IR difference frequency laser-based sensors for ambient CH4, CO, and N2O monitoring,” Applied Physics B, 2013, 110(2): 271–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    M. Jahjah, W. Ren, P. Stefański, R. Lewicki, J. W. Zhang, and W. Z. Jiang, “A compact QCL based methane and nitrous oxide sensor for environmental and medical applications,” Analyst, 2014, 139(9): 2065–2069.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    Y. Ma, R. Lewicki, M. Razeghi, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS based ppb-level detection of CO and N2O using a high power CW DFB-QCL,” Optics Express, 2013, 21(1): 1008–1019.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    Y. Zhang, M. Zhang, and W. Jin, “Multipoint, fiber-optic gas detection with intra-cavity spectroscopy,” Optics Communications, 2003, 220(4): 361–364.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    F. Ye, L. Qian, and B. Qi, “Multipoint chemical gas sensing using frequency-shifted interferometry,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, 2009, 27(23): 5356–5364.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    G. Whitenett, G. Stewart, H. Yu, and B. Culshaw, “Investigation of a tuneable mode-locked fiber laser for application to multipoint gas spectroscopy,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, 2004, 22(3): 813–819.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    Q. Wang, Z. Wang, and W. Ren, “Wavelength-stabilization-based photoacoustic spectroscopy for methane detection,” Measurement Science and Technology, 2017, 28(6): 065102-1–065102-7.ADSMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zongliang Wang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jun Chang
    • 2
  • Huishan Yu
    • 1
  • Cunwei Tian
    • 1
  • Hao Zhang
    • 1
  • Xiukun Zhang
    • 1
  • Longfei Tang
    • 1
  • Qinduan Zhang
    • 2
  • Yiwen Feng
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Physics Science and Information Technology and Shandong Key Laboratory of Optical Communication Science and TechnologyLiaocheng UniversityLiaochengChina
  2. 2.School of Information Science and Engineering and Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Laser Technology and ApplicationShandong UniversityJinanChina

Personalised recommendations