Photonic Sensors

, Volume 9, Issue 2, pp 162–169 | Cite as

Influence of Internal Stresses in Few-Mode Fiber on the Thermal Characteristics of Regenerated Gratings

  • Nurul Asha Mohd NazalEmail author
  • Kok Sing Lim
  • Yen Sian Lee
  • Muhammad Aizi Mat Salim
  • Harith Ahmad
Open Access


The pre-treatment of few-mode fibers (FMFs) has been successfully done with CO2 laser. The wavelength difference, Δλ between the two resonant wavelengths in the few-mode fiber Bragg grating (FMFBG) varies with temperature increment during the annealing process. The results show that the treated fibers with lower stresses have lower thermal sensitivity in Δλ than that of non-treated fiber. However, the treated fibers produce FMFBGs with better thermal durability and regeneration ratio. It is conceived that the presence of those stresses in the pristine fiber is responsible for the high thermal sensitivity in Δλ. The thermal relaxation of stresses and structural rearrangement during the thermal annealing process are responsible for the degradation of the strength and resilience of the regenerated grating.


Regenerated fiber Bragg grating few-mode fiber thermal stress relaxation CO2 laser annealing thermal resilience 



This work was performed within an Optical Fibers Sensors and Lasers Laboratory. The first author acknowledges all postgraduates students from the lab for general support. This work was supported by the Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS) (Grant No. FP033-2017A).


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nurul Asha Mohd Nazal
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kok Sing Lim
    • 1
  • Yen Sian Lee
    • 1
  • Muhammad Aizi Mat Salim
    • 2
  • Harith Ahmad
    • 1
  1. 1.Photonics Research CentreUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.Laser Center, Ibnu Sina Institute for Scientific and Industrial ResearchUniversiti Teknologi MalaysiaJohor BahruMalaysia

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