Advertisement

Photonic Sensors

, Volume 9, Issue 1, pp 69–77 | Cite as

Design and Analysis of 2D Photonic Crystal Based Biosensor to Detect Different Blood Components

  • Rajendran ArunkumarEmail author
  • Thinakaran Suaganya
  • Savarimuthu Robinson
Open Access
Regular
  • 104 Downloads

Abstract

In this paper, a photonic crystal ring resonator based bio sensor is designed to sense different blood constituents in blood in the wavelength range of 1530 nm‒1615 nm for biomedical applications. The blood constituents such as hemoglobin white blood cell, red blood cell, blood sugar, blood urea, albumin, serum bilirubin direct, and ammonia are sensed for the corresponding transmission output power, Q factor, and refractive index changes. As the blood constituent has unique refractive index, the resonant wavelength and output power are varied from one to another, which are used to identify the blood constituents.

Keywords

Photonic crystal plane wave expansion (PWE) finite difference time domain (FDTD) biosensor blood components 

References

  1. [1]
    J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic crystals molding the flow of light. NJ, USA: Princeton University Press Princeton, 2008: 1–304.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    F. L. Hsiao and C. Lee, “Novel biosensor based on photonic crystal nano-ring resonator,” Procedia Chemistry, 2009, 1(1): 417–420.ADSGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    P. Sharma and P. Sharan, “Design of photonic crystal based ring resonator for detection of different blood constituents,” Optics Communication, 2015, 348: 19–23.ADSGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    P. Sharma and P. Sharan, “Photonic crystal based ring resonator sensor for detection of glucose concentration for biomedical application,” International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, 2014, 4(30): 702–706.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    M. Lee and P. M. Fauchet, “Two-dimensional silicon photonic crystal based bio sensing platform for protein detection,” Optics Express, 2007, 15(8): 4530–4535.ADSGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Roggan, M. Friebel, K. Dörschel, A. Hahn, and G. Müller, “Optical properties of circulating human blood in the wavelength range 400–2500 nm,” Journal of Biomedical Optics, 1994, 4(1): 36–46.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    M. Friebel and M. Meinke, “Determination of the complex refractive index of highly concentrated hemoglobin solutions using transmittance and reflectance measurements,” Journal of Biomedical Optics, 2005, 10(6): 064019–1–064019–5.ADSGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    A. Roggan, M. Friebel, K. Dörschel, A. Hahn, and G. Müller, “Optical properties of circulating human blood in the wavelength range 400–2500 nm,” Journal of Biomedical Optics, 1999, 1(1): 36–46.ADSGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    L. G. Lindberg and P. A. Öberg, “Optical properties of blood in motion,” Optical Engineering, 1993, 32(2): 253–257.ADSGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    A. M. K. Enejder, J. Swartling, P. Aruna, and S. A. Engels, “Influence of cell shape and aggregate formation on the optical properties of flowing whole blood,” Applied Optics, 2003, 42(7): 1384–1394.ADSGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    V. S. Lee and L. Tarassenko, “Absorption and multiple scattering by suspensions of aligned red blood cells,” Journal of the Optical Society of America, 1993, 8(7): 1135–1141.ADSGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    R. Bayer, S. Çaglayan, and B. Günther, “Discrimination between orientation and elongation of RBC in laminar flow by means of laser diffraction,” SPIE, 1993, 2136: 105–113.ADSGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Analytica Chimica Acta, 2008, 6(20): 8–26.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    R. W. Boyd and J. E. Heebner, “Sensitive disk resonator photonic biosensor,” Applied Optics, 2001, 18(31): 15742–5747.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    I. M. White and X. Fan, “On the performance quantification of resonant Refractive index sensors,” Optics Express, 2008, 16(2): 1020–1028.ADSGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    C. Kang, C. Phare, and S. M. Weiss, “Photonic crystal defects with increased surface area for improved refractive index sensing,” in Proceeding of Conference on Laser and Electro Optics and Quantum Electronics and laser Science, San Jose, California, United States, 2010, pp. 1–2.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Physical Review Letters, 1987, 58(23): 2059–2062.ADSGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    S. John, “Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric super lattices,” Physical Review Letters, 1987, 58(20): 2486–2489.ADSGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    C. Lee, J. Thillaigovindan, and R. Radhakrishnan: “Design and modeling of nano mechanical sensors using silicon 2-D photonic crystals,” Journal of Light Wave Technology, 2008, 26(7): 839–846.ADSGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    S. Robinson and R. Nakkeeran, “Photonic crystal ring resonator-based add drop filters: a review,” SPIE, 2013, 52(6): 1–15.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    V. D. Kuma, “Analysis and simulations of photonic crystal components for optical communication,” Ph.D. dissertation, Helsinki University of Technology, Helsinki, Finland, 2003.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    Y. Liu and H. W. M. Salemink, “Photonic crystal-based all-optical on-chip sensor,” Optics Express, 2012, 20(18): 19912–19920.ADSGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    K. V. Shanthi and S. Robinson, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal based sensor for pressure sensing,” Photonic Sensors, 2014, 4(3): 248–253.ADSGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    M. Radhouene, M. K. Chhipa, M. Najjar, S. Robinson, and B. Suthar, “Novel design of ring resonator based temperature sensor using photonics technology,” Photonic Sensors, 2017, 7(4): 311–316.ADSGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    T. Zouache, A. Hocini, A. Harhouz, and R. Mokhtari, “Design of pressure sensor based on two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Acta Physica Polonica, 2017, 131(1): 68–70.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    S. Robinson and R. Nakkeeran, “PC based optical salinity sensor for different temperatures,” Photonic Sensors, 2012, 2(2): 187–192.ADSGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    W. C. L. Hopman, P. Pottier, D. Yudistira, J. V. Lith, P. V. Lambeck, R. M. D. L. Rue, et al., “Quasi-one-dimensional photonic crystal as a compact building block for refract metric optical sensors,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electron, 2005, 11(1): 11–16.ADSGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    V. S. Lee and L. Tarassenko, “Absorption and multiple scattering by suspensions of aligned red blood cells,” Journal of the Optical Society of America, 1991, 8(7): 1135–1141.ADSGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    R. Bayer, S. Çaglayan, and B. Günther, “Discrimination between orientation and elongation of RBC in laminar flow by means of laser diffraction,” SPIE, 1994, 2136: 105–113.ADSGoogle Scholar
  30. [30]
    A. M. K. Enejder, J. Swartling, P. Aruna, and S. A. Engels, “Influence of cell shape and aggregate formation on the optical properties of flowing whole blood,” Applied. Optics, 2003, 42(7): 1384–1394.ADSGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    L. G. Lindberg and P. A. Öberg, “Optical properties of blood in motion,” Optical Engineering, 1993, 32(2): 253–257.ADSGoogle Scholar
  32. [32]
    P. Sharma and P. Sharan, “An analysis and design of photonic crystal based bio chip for detection of glycosuria,” IEEE Sensor Journal, 2016, 15(10): 5569–5575.ADSGoogle Scholar
  33. [33]
    T. Dharchana, A. Sivanantharaja, and S. Selvendran, “Design of pressure sensor using 2D photonic crystal,” Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences, 2017, 11(7): 26–30.Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    V. Sharma and V. L. Kalyani, “Design two dimensional nanocavity photonic crystal biosensor detection in malaria,” International Journal of Emerging Research in Management and Technology, 2017, 6(6): 16–20.Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    S. Robinson and R. Nakkeeran, “PCRR based bandpass filter for C and L+U bands of ITU-T G.694.2 CWDM systems,” Optics and Photonics Journal, 2011, 1(3): 142–149.ADSGoogle Scholar
  36. [36]
    G. Pelosi, R. Coccioli, and S. Selleri, Quick finite elements for electromagnetic waves. Boston, London, England: Artech House, 1997: 1–289.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  37. [37]
    A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational electrodynamics: the finite-difference time-domain method. Boston, London, England: Artech House, 2005: 1–1038.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  38. [38]
    S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Block-iterative frequency domain methods for Maxwell’s equation in a plane wave basis,” Optics Express, 2000, 11(3): 173–190.Google Scholar
  39. [39]
    S. Guo and S. Alloin, “Simple plane wave implementation for photonic crystal calculation,” Optics Express, 2003, 11(2): 167–175.ADSGoogle Scholar
  40. [40]
    R. Scarmozzino, A. Gopinath, R. Pregla, and S. Helfert, “Numerical techniques for modeling guided-wave photonic devices,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, 2000, 6(1): 150–162.ADSGoogle Scholar
  41. [41]
    M. Loncar, J. Vuckovic´, and A. Scherer, “Methods for controlling positions of guided modes of photonic-crystal waveguides,” Optical Society of America, 2001, 18(9): 1362–1368.ADSGoogle Scholar
  42. [42]
    S. P. Guo, S. Albin´, and A. Scherer, “Numerical techniques for excitation and analysis of defect modes in photonic crystals,” Optical Society of America, 2003, 11(9): 1080–1089.Google Scholar
  43. [43]
    Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nano cavity in a two dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature, 2003, 425: 944–947.ADSGoogle Scholar
  44. [44]
    F. DellOlio, C. Ciminelli, D. Conteduca, and M. N. Armenise, “Effect of fabrication tolerances on the performance of two dimensional polymer photonic crystal channel drop filter: a theoretical investigation based on the finite element method,” Optical Engineering, 2013, 52(9): 097104–1–097104–7.ADSGoogle Scholar
  45. [45]
    M. Radhouene, M. K. Chhipa, M. Najjar, S. Robinson, and B. Suthar, “Novel design of ring resonator based temperature sensor using photonics technology,” Photonic Sensors, 2017, 7(4): 1–6.Google Scholar
  46. [46]
    C. S. Mallika, I. Bahaddur, P. C. Srikanth, and P. Sharan, “Photonic crystal ring resonator structure for temperature measurement,” Optik, 2015, 126(20): 2252–2255.ADSGoogle Scholar
  47. [47]
    T. T. Mai, F. L. Hsiao, C. K. Lee, W. F. Xiang, C. C. Chen, and W. K. Choi, “Optimization and comparison of photonic crystal resonators for silicon micro cantilever sensors,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 2010, 165: 16–25.Google Scholar
  48. [48]
    B. Li and C. K. Lee, “NEMS diaphragm sensors integrated with triple-nano-ring resonator,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 2011, 172: 61–68.Google Scholar
  49. [49]
    T. Sreenivasulu, V. Rao, T. Badrinarayana, G. K. Hegde, and T. Srinivas, “Photonic crystal ring resonator based force sensor: design and analysis,” Optik, 2018, 155: 111–120.Google Scholar
  50. [50]
    S. Olyaee and A. M. Bahabady, “Two-curve-shaped biosensor using photonic crystal nano-ring resonators,” Journal of Nanostructures, 2014, 4: 303–308.Google Scholar
  51. [51]
    L. J. Huang, H. P. Tian, D. Q. Yang, J. Zhou, Q. Liu, P. Zhang, et al., “Optimization of figure of merit in label-free biochemical sensors by designing a ring defect coupled resonator,” Optics Communication, 2014, 332: 42–49.ADSGoogle Scholar
  52. [52]
    S. Olyaee and A. M. Bahabady, “Designing a novel photonic crystal nano-ring resonator for biosensor application,” Optical & Quantum Electronics, 2015, 47: 1881–1888.Google Scholar
  53. [53]
    A. Harhouz and A. Hocini, “Design of high-sensitive biosensor based on cavity-waveguides coupling in 2D photonic crystal,” Journal of Electromagnic Wave Applications, 2015, 29(5): 659–667.Google Scholar
  54. [54]
    A. Hocini and A. Harhouz, “Modeling and analysis of the temperature sensitivity in two dimensional photonic crystal microcavity,” Journal of Nanophotonics, 2016, 10(1): 016007–016010.ADSGoogle Scholar
  55. [55]
    S. Arafa, M. Bouchemat, T. Bouchemat, A. Benmerkhi, and A. Hocini, “Infiltrated photonic crystal cavity as a highly sensitive platform for glucose concentration detection,” Optics Communication, 2017, 384: 93–100.ADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://doi.org/creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rajendran Arunkumar
    • 1
    Email author
  • Thinakaran Suaganya
    • 1
  • Savarimuthu Robinson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electronics and Communication EngineeringMount Zion College of Engineering and TechnologyPudukkottaiIndia

Personalised recommendations