Detection and identification of a 16SrIII-J phytoplasma affecting cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in Argentina
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Cassava plants displaying symptoms of dwarfing, witches’ broom, and chlorosis, were detected in production fields located in Misiones province Argentina. The RFLP profiles and phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and ribosomal protein (rplV-rpsC) gene sequences, allowed assignment of the phytoplasma detected in cassava to the 16SrIII-J subgroup. This is the first report of a phytoplasma affecting cassava in Argentina.
KeywordsPhytoplasma Cassava Yellowing Sequence Argentina
Phytoplasmas from subgroup 16SrIII-J have been reported previously in Brazil, Argentina and Chile (Montano et al. 2011; Fugita et al. 2017; Fernández et al. 2017; Quiroga et al. 2017) and recently a lineage related to this subgroup has been described in Mexico (Pérez-López et al. 2017).Plant species affected by these subgroup are diverse and include garlic (Allium sativum), chayote (Sechium edule), sunflower (Helianthus annuus), cauliflower (Brassica oleracea), eggplant (Solanum melongena), strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), daisy (Bellis perennis), Celosia spp., periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus), Aegiphila verticillata, Vernonia brasiliana, lettuce and Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris). The CassDWB phytoplasma described in this works belongs to the 16SrIII-J subgroup and to the authors’ knowledge constitutes the first report of a phytoplasma affecting cassava in Argentina. This is also believed to be the first report of a 16SrIII-J subgroup affecting cassava worldwide. The detection and identification of the CassDWB phytoplasma in the NE region of Argentina extends the distribution of this subgroup and increases the knowledge about its host range. In previous work, Flôres et al. (2013) describes a phytoplasma from the 16SrIII-B subgroup associated with cassava witches’ broom disease in Brazil. Cassava frogskin disease (CFSD) was also reported in Colombia (Alvarez et al. 2009) to be associated with a phytoplasma from subgroup 16SrIII-B. Characteristic CFSD symptoms in the roots are a woody aspect and a thickened peel that is cork-like, fragile, and opaque (Alvarez et al. 2009). No symptoms of CFSD were observed in samples infected with CassDWB phytoplasma. It is necessary to continue studying this pathosystem, identifying vectors and natural reservoirs as well as evaluating the behavior of different cassava germplasm to achieve a more efficient management of the disease. It is also essential to improve the detection of infected material in Argentina as well as the material that is introduced into the territory, particularly as this is a clonally multiplied crop.
This study was funded by INTA (Grant Number: PN CI 1108071-PE2.1108072).
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