Advertisement

Phytophthora aleatoria sp. nov., associated with root and collar damage on Pinus radiata from nurseries and plantations

  • Peter ScottEmail author
  • Pam Taylor
  • Judy Gardner
  • Alexandra Puértolas
  • Preeti Panda
  • Sarah Addison
  • Ian Hood
  • Treena Burgess
  • Ian Horner
  • Nari Williams
  • Rebecca McDougal
Original Paper
  • 85 Downloads

Abstract

During routine surveys of Pinus radiata plantations in the Nelson region, New Zealand, a Phytophthora species was isolated in association with bleeding stem cankers and rhizosphere soil. This isolate grew more slowly than other Phytophthora species associated with P. radiata in New Zealand, and was morphologically similar to isolates of Phytophthora cactorum previously associated with horticulture production, and isolates that were morphologically identified as P. cactorum from P. radiata in Nelson since the 1970s. Phylogenetic analyses of the ITS, cox1, and ß-tubulin _F1A and ß-tubulin_F2A regions confirmed this to be a new species closely related to P. hedraiandra in Clade 1. The new species is described here as Phytophthora aleatoria sp. nov. It produces partially caducous, papillate, ovoid to rarely globose or limoniform sporangia, markedly aplerotic oogonia forming thin-walled oospores, and paragynous (mainly) or amphigynous antheridia on some cultures. To date, this species has been confirmed on P. radiata in New Zealand across a range of sites within the North Canterbury, Nelson, Hawkes Bay, Taupo and the Bay of Plenty regions.

Keywords

Phytophthora phylogeny Pinaceae Stem cankers Clade 1 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was funded by MBIE (CO4X1305), the Forest Growers Levy Trust (administered by the New Zealand Forest Owners’ Association) and the Radiata Pine Breeding Company under the “Healthy Trees, Healthy Future” research programme at Scion (NZFRI, Ltd). Strategic Science Investment Funds (MBIE, New Zealand) were also utilised for this study. Nicole Silvester, Rita Tetenburg, Sara Carey, and Tomoko Pearson are acknowledged for technical assistance. Scion’s Forest Research Culture Collection housed and maintained all the isolates used in this study.

Supplementary material

13313_2019_631_MOESM1_ESM.png (760 kb)
Supplementary Fig. 1 Bayesian trees produced from sequences from the ITS region (upper), β-tubulin (middle) and cox1 (lower), including species from Clade 1. Bayesian posterior probabilities are given above the branches, and maximum likelihood bootstrap values (in %) above 70% are given below the branches. Phytophthora psychrophila isolate P10433 from Clade 3 was used for an outgroup reference. (PNG 759 kb)
13313_2019_631_MOESM2_ESM.png (771 kb)
Supplementary Fig. 2 Bayesian trees produced from concatenated sequences from the ITS region, including species from Clade 1, and additional Phytophthora aleatoria isolates sequenced from the Scion Forest Health Diagnostics Service. Bayesian posterior probabilities are given above the branches, and maximum likelihood bootstrap values (in %) above 70% are given below the branches. Phytophthora psychrophila isolate P10433 from Clade 3 was used for an outgroup reference. (PNG 771 kb)

References

  1. Blair JE, Coffey MD, Park SY, Geiser DM, Kang S (2008) A multi-locus phylogeny for Phytophthora utilizing markers derived from complete genome sequences. Fungal Genet Biol 45:266–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brasier C, Griffin M (1979) Taxonomy of ‘Phytophthora palmivora’on cocoa. Trans Br Mycol Soc 72:111–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bush EA, Stromberg EL, Hong C, Richardson PA, Kong P (2006) Illustration of key morphological characteristics of Phytophthora species identified in Virginia nursery irrigation water. Plant Health Prog doi 10:1094Google Scholar
  4. Cooke DEL, Drenth A, Duncan JM, Wagels G, Brasier CM (2000) A molecular phylogeny of Phytophthora and related oomycetes. Fungal Genet Biol 30:17–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Crosby T, Dugdale J, Watt J (1998) Area codes for recording specimen localities in the New Zealand subregion. N Z J Zool 25:175–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. De Cock A, Lévesque CA (2004) New species of Pythium and Phytophthora. Stud Mycol 50:481–487Google Scholar
  7. Dick MW (1990) Keys to Pythium. University of Reading Press, ReadingGoogle Scholar
  8. Erwin DC, Ribeiro OK (1996) Phytophthora diseases worldwide. APS Press, St. PaulGoogle Scholar
  9. Erwin DC, Robeiro OK (1996) Phytophthora diseases worldwide. APS Press, St PaulGoogle Scholar
  10. Farr DF, Rossman AY (2018) Fungal databases, U.S. National Fungus Collections, ARS, USDA. Retrieved July 18, 2018, from https://nt.ars-grin.gov/fungaldatabases/
  11. Gams K, Hoekstra E, Aptroot A (1998) CBS course of mycology. Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, BaarnGoogle Scholar
  12. Hamm P, Hansen E (1983) Phytophthora pseudotsugae, a new species causing root rot of Douglas-fir. Can J Bot 61:2626–2631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Heibl C (2014) ips: Interfaces to phylogenetic software in R. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=ips. Accessed May 2018
  14. Huelsenbeck JP, Ronquist F (2001) MRBAYES: Bayesian inference of phylogenetic trees. Bioinformatics 17:754–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jung T, Cooke D, Blaschke H, Duncan J, Oßwald W (1999) Phytophthora quercina sp. nov., causing root rot of European oaks. Mycol Res 103:785–798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Martin FN, Tooley PW (2003) Phylogenetic relationships among Phytophthora species inferred from sequence analysis of mitochondrially encoded cytochrome oxidase I and II genes. Mycologia 95:269–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Martin FN, Blair JE, Coffey MD (2014) A combined mitochondrial and nuclear multilocus phylogeny of the genus Phytophthora. Fungal Genet Biol 66:19–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. New Zealand Forest Owners Association (2012) New Zealand plantation forest industry facts and figures. Ministry for Primary Industries, WellingtonGoogle Scholar
  19. Newhook FJ (1959) The association of Phytophthora spp. with mortality of Pinus radiata and other conifers I. symptoms and epidemiology in shelterbelts. N Z J Agric Res 2:808–843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Paradis E, Claude J, Strimmer K (2004) APE: analyses of phylogenetics and evolution in R language. Bioinformatics 20:289–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Reglinski T, Spiers TM, Dick MA, Taylor JT, Gardner J (2009) Management of phytophthora root rot in radiata pine seedlings. Plant Pathol 58:723–730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Schliep KP (2010) Phangorn: phylogenetic analysis in R. Bioinformatics 27:592–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Thibaut J, Frederick A, Klaus S, Zhian K, Rebecca H, Emmanuel P, Jérome G, Hilmar L (2017) apex: phylogenetics with multiple genes. Mol Ecol Resour 17:19–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Wilkinson SP (2019) aphid: an R package for analysis with profile hidden Markov models. Bioinformatics.  https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btz159

Copyright information

© Australasian Plant Pathology Society Inc. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter Scott
    • 1
    Email author
  • Pam Taylor
    • 2
  • Judy Gardner
    • 2
  • Alexandra Puértolas
    • 2
  • Preeti Panda
    • 2
  • Sarah Addison
    • 2
  • Ian Hood
    • 2
  • Treena Burgess
    • 3
  • Ian Horner
    • 1
  • Nari Williams
    • 2
  • Rebecca McDougal
    • 2
  1. 1.The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research LimitedHavelock NorthNew Zealand
  2. 2.New Zealand Forest Research Institute Ltd. ScionRotoruaNew Zealand
  3. 3.Centre for Phytophthora Science and ManagementMurdoch UniversityMurdochAustralia

Personalised recommendations