Advertisement

Australasian Plant Pathology

, Volume 48, Issue 3, pp 297–307 | Cite as

Quantitative analysis of the lifelong production of conidia released from single colonies of Podosphaera xanthii on melon leaves using electrostatic techniques

  • T. Suzuki
  • R. Nakamura
  • N. Takagi
  • Y. Takikawa
  • K. Kakutani
  • Y. Matsuda
  • K. Matsui
  • T. NonomuraEmail author
Original Paper
  • 40 Downloads

Abstract

Using an electrostatic rotational spore collector, we consecutively collected all of the conidia produced from single colonies of melon powdery mildew (Podosphaera xanthii Pollacci KMP-6 N) on leaves of living melon plants throughout the lifetime of the colony in a natural environment, and counted all conidia that were attracted to insulators. The collector consisted of an insulated round plastic container, a conductor (copper) film, an insulator (collector) film, an electrostatic voltage generator and a timer mechanism. Negative charge was supplied from the voltage generator to the conductor film, and the negatively charged conductor film caused dielectric polarization of the insulator film. The insulator film, which creates an attractive force for trapping conidia that enter the field, was placed ca. 2 cm from the apex of the single colony. Released conidia were successfully attracted to the electrostatically activated insulator films. Each collector film was exchanged for a new insulator film at 24 h intervals until KMP-6 N ceased to release conidia from single colonies. During a colony’s lifespan, KMP-6 N released an average of 12.6 × 104 conidia from each of the single colonies at ca. 744 h. Additionally, we found that 1) the number of conidia released from single colonies in daytime was larger than that in night-time, 2) conidia were released from single colonies for ca. 2–4 h longer in spring or summer than in autumn or winter, and 3) release of conidia from KMP-6 N decreased as light intensity declined. Thus, conidial release from conidiophores is affected by day-length and light intensity.

Keywords

Catenated conidia Conidiophores Dielectric polarization Electrostatic spore collector Electrostatic field 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was partly supported by Grants for Scientific Research from Faculty of Agriculture, Kindai University, and Research Institute for Agricultural Technology and Innovation, Kindai University. The authors acknowledge the assistance of two professional editors who assisted with the English and grammar.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Aylor DE (1990) The role of intermittent wind in the dispersal of fungal pathogens. Annu Rev Phytopathol 28:73–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Braun U (1987) A monograph of the Erysiphales (powdery mildews). Beih Nova Hedwig 89:1–700Google Scholar
  3. Braun U, Cook RTA (2012) Taxonomic manual of the Erysiphales (powdery mildews). CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  4. Braun U, Shishkoff N, Takamatsu S (2001) Phylogeny of Podosphaera sect. Sphaerotheca subsect. Magnicellulatae (Sphaerotheca fuliginea auct. s. Lat.) inferred from rDNA ITS sequences – a taxonomic interpretation. Schlechtendalia 7:45–52Google Scholar
  5. Brown JKM, Hovmøller MS (2002) Aerial dispersal of pathogens on the global and continental scales and its impact on plant disease. Science 297:537–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen R-S, Chu C, Cheng C-W, Chen W-Y, Tsay J-G (2008) Differentiation of two powdery mildews of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) by a PCR-mediated method based on ITS sequences. Eur J Pl Path 121:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cosme B-R, Josefina L-F, Raúl A-M, María Dolores M-R, José Armando C-F, José Benigno V-T, Fabiola Sary Mell L-S, Raymundo Saúl G-E (2012) Characterization of powdery mildew in cucumber plants under greenhouse conditions in the Culiacan Valley, Sinaloa, Mexico. Afr J Agric Res 7:3237–3248Google Scholar
  8. Del Pino D, Olalla L, Pérez-García A, Rivera ME, García S, Moreno R, Torés JA (2002) Occurrence of races and pathotypes of cucurbit powdery mildew in southeastern Spain. Phytoparasitica 30:459–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Griffith WT (2004) Electrostatic phenomena. In: Bruflodt D, Loehr BS (eds) The physics of everyday phenomena: a conceptual introduction to physics. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 232–252Google Scholar
  10. Halliday D, Resnick R, Walker J (2005) Electric charge. In: Johnson S, Ford E (eds) Fundamentals of physics. John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp 561–579Google Scholar
  11. Hirata K (1967) Notes on haustoria, hyphae and conidia of the powdery mildew fungus of barley, Erysiphe graminis f. Sp. hordei. Mem Fac Agric. Nigata Univ 6:205–259Google Scholar
  12. Hirata T, Cunnington JH, Paksiri U, Limkaisang S, Shishkoff N, Grigailiunaite B, Sato Y, Takamatsu S (2000) Evolutionary analysis of subsection Magnicellulatae of Podosphaera section Sphaerotheca (Erysiphales) based on the rDNA internal transcribed spacer sequences with special reference to host plants. Can J Bot 78:1521–1530Google Scholar
  13. Hong Y-J, Hossain MR, Kim H-T, Park J-I, Nou I-S (2018) Identification of two new races of Podosphaera xanthii causing powdery mildew in melon in South Korea. Plant Pathol J 34:182–190Google Scholar
  14. Hosoya K, Narisawa K, Pitrat M, Ezura H (1999) Race identification in powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca fuliginea) on melon (Cucumis melo) in Japan. Plant Breed 118:259–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Křístková E, Lebeda A, Sedláková B (2004) Virulence of Czech cucurbit powdery mildew isolates on Cucumis melo genotypes MR-1 and PI 124112. Sci Hortic 99:257–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Křístková E, Lebeda A, Sedláková B (2009) Species spectra, distribution and host range of cucurbit powdery mildews in the Czech Republic, and in some other European and middle eastern countries. Phytoparasitica 37:337–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Leach CM (1976) An electrostatic theory to explain violent spore liberation by Drechslera turcica and other fungi. Mycologia 68:63–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Matsuda Y, Ikeda H, Moriura N, Tanaka N, Shimizu K, Oichi W, Nonomura T, Kakutani K, Kusakari S, Higashi K, Toyoda H (2006) A new spore precipitator with polarized dielectric insulators for physical control of tomato powdery mildew. Phytopathology 96:967–974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. McGrath MT, Thomas CE (1996) Powdery mildew. In: Hopkins DL, Thomas CE (eds) Zitter TA. Compendium of cucurbit disease. The American Phytopathological Society Press, St. Paul, Minnesota, pp 28–30Google Scholar
  20. Mizuno A, Washizu M (1995) Biomedical engineering. In: Chang JS, Kelley AJ, Crowley JM (eds) Handbook of electrostatic processes. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 653–686Google Scholar
  21. Mohamed YF, Bardin M, Nicot PC, Pitrat M (1995) Causal agents of powdery mildew of cucurbits in Sudan. Plant Dis 79:634–636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Moriura N, Matsuda Y, Oichi W, Nakashima S, Hirai T, Nonomura T, Kakutani K, Kusakari S, Higashi K, Toyoda H (2006a) An apparatus for collecting total conidia of Blumeria graminis f. Sp. hordei from leaf colonies using electrostatic attraction. Plant Pathol 55:367–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Moriura N, Matsuda Y, Oichi W, Nakashima S, Hirai T, Sameshima T, Nonomura T, Kakutani K, Kusakari S, Higashi K, Toyoda H (2006b) Consecutive monitoring of lifelong production of conidia by individual conidiophores of Blumeria graminis f. Sp. hordei on barley leaves by digital microscopic techniques with electrostatic micromanipulation. Mycol Res 110:18–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nonomura T, Matsuda Y, Xu L, Kakutani K, Takikawa Y, Toyoda H (2009) Collection of highly germinative pseudochain conidia of Oidium neolycopersici from conidiophores by electrostatic attraction. Mycol Res 113:364–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nonomura T, Matsuda Y, Yamashita S, Akahoshi H, Takikawa Y, Kakutani K, Toyoda H (2013) Natural woody plant, Mallotus japonicus, as an ecological partner to transfer different pathotypic conidia of Oidium neolycopersici to greenhouse tomatoes. Plant Prot Sci 49:S33–S40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Oichi W, Matsuda Y, Sameshima T, Nonomura T, Kakutani K, Nishimura H, Kusakari S, Toyoda H (2004) Consecutive monitoring for conidiogenesis by Oidium neolycopersici on tomato leaves with a high-fidelity digital microscope. J Gen Plant Pathol 70:329–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Oichi W, Matsuda Y, Nonomura T, Toyoda H, Xu L, Kusakari S (2006) Formation of conidial pseudochains by tomato powdery mildew Oidium neolycopersici. Plant Dis 90:915–919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pérez-García A, Romero D, Fernández-Ortuño D, López-Ruiz F, De Vicente A, Torés JA (2009) The powdery mildew fungus Podosphaera fusca (synonym Podosphaera xanthii), a constant threat to cucurbits. Mol Plant Pathol 10:153–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Reifschneider FJB, Boiteux LS, Occhiena EM (1985) Powdery mildew on melon (Cucumis melo) caused by Sphaerotheca fuliginea in Brazil. Plant Dis 69:1069–1070Google Scholar
  30. Sameshima T, Kashimoto K, Kida K, Matsuda Y, Nonomura T, Kakutani K, Nakata K, Kusakari S, Toyoda H (2004) Cytological events in tomato leaves inoculated with conidia of Blumeria graminis f. Sp. hordei and Oidium neolycopersici KTP-01. J Gen Plant Pathol 70:7–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Shimizu T, Matsuda Y, Nonomura T, Ikeda H, Tamura N, Kusakari S, Kimbara J, Toyoda H (2007) Dual protection of hydroponic tomatoes from rhizosphere pathogens Ralstonia solanacearum and Fusarium oxysporum f. Sp. radicis-lycopersici and airborne conidia of Oidium neolycopersici with an ozone-generative electrostatic spore precipitator. Plant Pathol 56:987–997CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sowell G Jr (1982) Population shift of Sphaerotheca fuliginea on musk melon. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 112:156–160Google Scholar
  33. Suzuki T, Nishimura S, Yagi K, Nakamura R, Takikawa Y, Matsuda Y, Kakutani K, Nonomura T (2018) Effects of light quality on conidiophore formation of the melon powdery mildew pathogen Podosphaera xanthii. Phytoparasitica 94:1105–1110Google Scholar
  34. Takikawa Y, Kakutani K, Nonomura T, Matsuda Y, Toyoda H (2011) Conidia of Erysiphe trifoliorum attempt penetration twice during a two-step germination process on non-host barley leaves and an artificial hydrophobic surface. Mycoscience 52:204–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Takikawa Y, Nonomura T, Miyamoto S, Okamoto N, Murakami T, Matsuda Y, Kakutani K, Kusakari S, Toyoda H (2015) Digital microscopic analysis of developmental process of conidiogenesis by powdery mildew pathogens isolated from melon leaves. Phytoparasitica 43:517–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Tomason Y, Gibson PT (2006) Fungal characteristics and varietal reactions of powdery mildew species on cucurbits in steppes of Ukraine. Agron Res 4:549–562Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Australasian Plant Pathology Society Inc. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical Biological Sciences, Faculty of ScienceJapan Women’s UniversityTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Laboratory of Phytoprotection, Science and Technology, Faculty of AgricultureKindai UniversityNaraJapan
  3. 3.Plant Center, Institute of Advanced TechnologyKindai UniversityWakayamaJapan
  4. 4.Pharmaceutical Research and Technology InstituteKindai UniversityOsakaJapan
  5. 5.Matsui Seed Co. LTD.NaraJapan
  6. 6.Research Institute for Agricultural Technology and InnovationKindai UniversityNaraJapan

Personalised recommendations