Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although TBI leads to mechanical damage during initial impact, secondary damage also occurs as results from delayed neurochemical process and intracellular signaling pathways. Accumulated animal and human studies demonstrated that apoptotic mechanism contributes to overall pathology of TBI. Apoptotic cell death has been identified within contusional brain lesion at acute phase of TBI and in region remote from the site directly injured in days to weeks after trauma. TBI is also dynamic conditions that cause neuronal decline overtime and is likely due to neurodegenerative mechanisms years after trauma. Current studies have even suggested association of neuronal damage through apoptotic pathway with mild TBI, which contributes chronic persistent neurological symptoms and cognitive deficits. Thus, a better understanding of the acute and chronic consequences of apoptosis following TBI is required. The purpose of this review is to describe (1) neuronal apoptotic pathway following TBI, (2) contribution of apoptosis to acute and chronic phase of TBI, and (3) current treatment targeting on apoptotic pathway.
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Dr. Hanafy receives support from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (R21NS099606 and R01NS109174) and the American Heart Association Grant in Aid (17GRNT33670058).
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Akamatsu, Y., Hanafy, K.A. Cell Death and Recovery in Traumatic Brain Injury. Neurotherapeutics (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13311-020-00840-7
- Cell death
- Traumatic brain injury