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Allopregnanolone Reverses Bioenergetic Deficits in Female Triple Transgenic Alzheimer’s Mouse Model

Abstract

Previously, we reported that the neurosteroid allopregnanolone (Allo) promoted neural stem cell regeneration, restored cognitive function, and reduced Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) pathology in the triple transgenic Alzheimer’s mouse model (3xTgAD). To investigate the underlying systems biology of Allo action in AD models in vivo, we assessed the regulation of Allo on the bioenergetic system of the brain. Outcomes of these analysis indicated that Allo significantly reversed deficits in mitochondrial respiration and biogenesis and key mitochondrial enzyme activity and reduced lipid peroxidation in the 3xTgAD mice in vivo. To explore the mechanisms by which Allo regulates the brain metabolism, we conducted targeted transcriptome analysis. These data further confirmed that Allo upregulated genes involved in glucose metabolism, mitochondrial bioenergetics, and signaling pathways while simultaneously downregulating genes involved in Alzheimer’s pathology, fatty acid metabolism, and mitochondrial uncoupling and dynamics. Upstream regulatory pathway analysis predicted that Allo induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) and coactivator 1-alpha (PPARGC1A) pathways while simultaneously inhibiting the presenilin 1 (PSEN 1), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) pathways to reduce AD pathology. Collectively, these data indicate that Allo functions as a systems biology regulator of bioenergetics, cholesterol homeostasis, and β-amyloid reduction in the brain. These systems are critical to neurological health, thus providing a plausible mechanistic rationale for Allo as a therapeutic to promote neural cell function and reduce the burden of AD pathology.

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Acknowledgments

This work was supported by National Institute on Aging (NIA) grants U01-AG031115, U01-AG047222, UF1-AG046148, and P01-AG026572 to Roberta Diaz Brinton.

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Correspondence to Roberta Diaz Brinton.

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Wang, T., Yao, J., Chen, S. et al. Allopregnanolone Reverses Bioenergetic Deficits in Female Triple Transgenic Alzheimer’s Mouse Model. Neurotherapeutics 17, 178–188 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13311-019-00793-6

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Key Words

  • Allopregnanolone
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • bioenergetics
  • mitochondria
  • therapeutics
  • transcriptome