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Exercise for Brain Health: An Investigation into the Underlying Mechanisms Guided by Dose

  • Danylo F. Cabral
  • Jordyn Rice
  • Timothy P. Morris
  • Tatjana Rundek
  • Alvaro Pascual-Leone
  • Joyce Gomes-OsmanEmail author
Review

Abstract

There is a strong link between the practice of regular physical exercise and maintenance of cognitive brain health. Animal and human studies have shown that exercise exerts positive effects on cognition through a variety of mechanisms, such as changes in brain volume and connectivity, cerebral perfusion, synaptic plasticity, neurogenesis, and regulation of trophic factors. However, much of this data has been conducted in young humans and animals, raising questions regarding the generalizability of these findings to aging adults. Furthermore, it is not clear at which doses these effects might take place, and if effects would differ with varying exercise modes (such as aerobic, resistance training, combinations, or other). The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence on the effects of exercise interventions on various mechanisms believed to support cognitive improvements: cerebral perfusion, synaptic neuroplasticity, brain volume and connectivity, neurogenesis, and regulation of trophic factors. We synthesized the findings according to exposure to exercise (short- [1 day-16 weeks], medium- [24-40 weeks], and long-term exercise [52 weeks and beyond]) and have limited our discussion of dose effects to studies in aging adults and aged animals (when human data was not available).

Key Words

Physical exercise cognitive brain health exercise dose aging brain older adults physiological mechanisms 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Dr. Gomes-Osman was supported by an Evelyn F. McKnight Pilot Grant. The project described was supported by the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number KL2TR002737. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.

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Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© The American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics, Inc. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physical TherapyUniversity of Miami Miller School of MedicineCoral GablesUSA
  2. 2.Evelyn McKnight Brain InstituteUniversity of Miami Miller School of MedicineMiamiUSA
  3. 3.Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation and Division of Cognitive Neurology, Department of NeurologyBeth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  4. 4.Department of NeurologyUniversity of Miami Miller School of MedicineMiamiUSA

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