Temporal patterns in ecosystem services research: A review and three recommendations
Temporal aspects of ecosystem services have gained surprisingly little attention given that ecosystem service flows are not static but change over time. We present the first systematic review to describe and establish how studies have assessed temporal patterns in supply and demand of ecosystem services. 295 studies, 2% of all studies engaging with the ecosystem service concept, considered changes in ecosystem services over time. Changes were mainly characterised as monotonic and linear (81%), rather than non-linear or through system shocks. Further, a lack of focus of changing ecosystem service demand (rather than supply) hampers our understanding of the temporal patterns of ecosystem services provision and use. Future studies on changes in ecosystem services over time should (1) more explicitly study temporal patterns, (2) analyse trade-offs and synergies between services over time, and (3) integrate changes in supply and demand and involve and empower stakeholders in temporal ecosystem services research.
KeywordsEcosystem service dynamics Ecosystem service supply Linear change Periodic change Stakeholder involvement
This work was supported by the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) and by the strategic research environment BECC, hosted by CEC at Lund University.
- Bastian, O., K. Grunewald, and R.-U. Syrbe. 2012. Space and time aspects of ecosystem services, using the example of the EU Water Framework Directive. International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management 8: 5–16. https://doi.org/10.1080/21513732.2011.631941.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Birkhofer, K., E. Diehl, J. Andersson, J. Ekroos, A. Früh-Müller, F. Machnikowski, V.L. Mader, L. Nilsson, et al. 2015. Ecosystem services—Current challenges and opportunities for ecological research. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 2: 1–12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2014.00087.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Chan, K.M.A., A.D. Guerry, P. Balvanera, S. Klain, T. Satterfield, X. Basurto, A. Bostrom, R. Chuenpagdee, et al. 2012. Where are cultural and social in ecosystem services? A framework for constructive engagement. BioScience 62: 744–756. https://doi.org/10.1525/bio.2012.62.8.7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Chapin III, F.S., S.R. Carpenter, G.P. Kofinas, C. Folke, N. Abel, W.C. Clark, P. Olsson, D.M.S. Smith, et al. 2010. Ecosystem stewardship: Sustainability strategies for a rapidly changing planet. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 25: 241–249. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2009.10.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cord, A.F., B. Bartkowski, M. Beckmann, A. Dittrich, K. Hermans-Neumann, A. Kaim, N. Lienhoop, K. Locher-Krause, et al. 2017. Towards systematic analyses of ecosystem service trade-offs and synergies: Main concepts, methods and the road ahead. Ecosystem Services 28: 264–272. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.07.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Fischer, M., O. Bossdorf, S. Gockel, F. Hänsel, A. Hemp, D. Hessenmöller, G. Korte, J. Nieschulze, et al. 2010. Implementing large-scale and long-term functional biodiversity research: The biodiversity exploratories. Basic and Applied Ecology 11: 473–485. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.baae.2010.07.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Fraser, E.D. 2003. Social vulnerability and ecological fragility: Building bridges between social and natural sciences using the Irish Potato Famine as a case study. Conservation Ecology 7: 9. https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-00534-070209.
- Guerra, C.A., M.J. Metzger, J. Maes, and T. Pinto-Correia. 2016. Policy impacts on regulating ecosystem services: Looking at the implications of 60 years of landscape change on soil erosion prevention in a Mediterranean silvo-pastoral system. Landscape Ecology 31: 271–290. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-015-0241-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Haase, D., N. Schwarz, M. Strohbach, F. Kroll, and R. Seppelt. 2012. Synergies, trade-offs, and losses of ecosystem services in urban regions: An integrated multiscale framework applied to the Leipzig-Halle Region, Germany. Ecology and Society 17: 22. https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-04853-170322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Huxham, M., L. Emerton, J. Kairo, F. Munyi, H. Abdirizak, T. Muriuki, F. Nunan, and R.A. Briers. 2015. Applying climate compatible development and economic valuation to coastal management: A case study of Kenya’s mangrove forests. Journal of Environmental Management 157: 168–181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2015.04.018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- IPBES. 2018. Summary for policymakers of the regional assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystem services for Europe and Central Asia of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services. Bonn: IPBES.Google Scholar
- IPBES. 2019. Summary for policymakers of the global assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystem services of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services. In ed. S. Díaz, J. Settele, E.S. Brondizio, H.T. Ngo, M. Guèze, J. Agard, A. Arneth, P. Balvanera, et al. Bonn: IPBES Secretariat.Google Scholar
- Jha, S., C.M. Bacon, S.M. Philpott, R.A. Rice, V.E. Méndez, and P. Läderach. 2011. A review of ecosystem services, farmer livelihoods, and value chains in shade coffee agroecosystems. In Integrating agriculture, conservation and ecotourism: Examples from the field, issues in agroecology—Present status and future prospects, vol. 1, ed. W.B. Campbell and S. López Ortíz, 141–208. Berlin: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-1309-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Legendre, P., and L.F. Legendre. 2012. Numerical ecology, vol. 24. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
- Loreau, M., S. Naeem, and P. Inchausti (eds.). 2002. Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning: Synthesis and perspectives. Oxford: Oxford University Press on Demand.Google Scholar
- Luederitz, C., M. Meyer, D.J. Abson, F. Gralla, D.J. Lang, A.-L. Rau, and H. von Wehrden. 2016. Systematic student-driven literature reviews in sustainability science—An effective way to merge research and teaching. Journal of Cleaner Production. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.02.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. 2003. Ecosystems and human well-being. https://doi.org/10.1196/annals.1439.003.
- Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. 2005. Ecosystems and human well-being: Synthesis. Washington, DC: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment.Google Scholar
- R Core Team. 2017. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. https://www.R-project.org/.
- Rau, A.-L., M.W. Bickel, S. Hilser, S. Jenkins, G. McCrory, N. Pfefferle, J. Rathgens, D. Roitsch, et al. 2018b. Linking concepts of change and ecosystem services research: A systematic review. Change and Adaptation in Socio-Ecological Systems 4: 33–45. https://doi.org/10.1515/cass-2018-0004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Roberts, D.W. 2016. labdsv: Ordination and multivariate analysis for ecology. R package version 1.8-0. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=labdsv.