, Volume 48, Issue 10, pp 1143–1153 | Cite as

Livestock manure driving stream nitrate

  • Christopher S. JonesEmail author
  • Chad W. Drake
  • Claire E. Hruby
  • Keith E. Schilling
  • Calvin F. Wolter
Research Article


Growth and consolidation in the livestock industry in the past 30 years have resulted in more total farm animals being raised on fewer Iowa farms. The effects of this on stream water quality at the landscape scale have largely gone unexplored. The main objective of this work was to quantify the effects on stream nitrate levels of livestock concentration in two western Iowa watersheds relative to seven other nearby watersheds. To achieve this objective, we used data on high-frequency nitrate concentration and stream discharge, commercial nitrogen fertilizer use, and manure-generated nitrogen in each watershed. Our analysis shows much higher stream nitrate in the two watersheds where livestock concentration has been greatest, and little difference in commercial fertilizer inputs with the widespread availability of manure N. Reducing N inputs and better management of manure N, including analysis of crop N availability in soil and manure, can reduce uncertainty regarding fertilization while improving water quality.


Concentrated livestock Commercial fertilizer Flow weighted average Manure Nitrate-nitrogen 



This publication was prepared by the authors with funds from the Iowa Nutrient Research Center. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Iowa Nutrient Research Center or Iowa State University. The authors thank Dan Gilles for graphics assistance.


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Copyright information

© Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher S. Jones
    • 1
    Email author
  • Chad W. Drake
    • 2
  • Claire E. Hruby
    • 3
  • Keith E. Schilling
    • 4
  • Calvin F. Wolter
    • 5
  1. 1.University of IowaIowa CityUSA
  2. 2.Stanley Hydraulics Laboratory, IIHR-Hydroscience and EngineeringUniversity of IowaIowa CityUSA
  3. 3.Iowa Department of Natural ResourcesDes MoinesUSA
  4. 4.Iowa Geological SurveyIowa CityUSA
  5. 5.Iowa Department of Natural ResourcesDes MoinesUSA

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