AMBIO

, Volume 44, Issue 4, pp 308–318 | Cite as

A framework for the social valuation of ecosystem services

  • María R. Felipe-Lucia
  • Francisco A. Comín
  • Javier Escalera-Reyes
Report

Abstract

Methods to assess ecosystem services using ecological or economic approaches are considerably better defined than methods for the social approach. To identify why the social approach remains unclear, we reviewed current trends in the literature. We found two main reasons: (i) the cultural ecosystem services are usually used to represent the whole social approach, and (ii) the economic valuation based on social preferences is typically included in the social approach. Next, we proposed a framework for the social valuation of ecosystem services that provides alternatives to economics methods, enables comparison across studies, and supports decision-making in land planning and management. The framework includes the agreements emerged from the review, such as considering spatial–temporal flows, including stakeholders from all social ranges, and using two complementary methods to value ecosystem services. Finally, we provided practical recommendations learned from the application of the proposed framework in a case study.

Keywords

Social evaluation Stakeholder Ecosystem services flow Ecosystem services ranking Social perception 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We acknowledge all participants in the interviews as well as others who provided meaningful information to understand the socio-ecological system of the River Piedra basin. We thank M. Gartzia, A. de Frutos, and an anonymous reviewer for valuable comments on an earlier version of the manuscript. MFL was awarded a grant by the CSIC (Spanish National Research Council) under the JAE‐predoc program (JAE-Pre-2010-044), co-financed by the European Social Fund.

Supplementary material

13280_2014_555_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (108 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 109 kb)

References

  1. Alcamo, J., N.J. Ash, C.D. Butler, J.B. Callicott, D. Capistrano, S. Carpenter, J.C. Castilla, R. Chambers, et al. 2003. Ecosystems and human well-being: A framework for assessment. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  2. Anthony, A., J. Atwood, P. August, C. Byron, S. Cobb, C. Foster, C. Fry, A. Gold, et al. 2009. Coastal lagoons and climate change: Ecological and social ramifications in the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coast ecosystems. Ecology and Society.Google Scholar
  3. Antunes, P., G. Kallis, N. Videira, and R. Santos. 2009. Participation and evaluation for sustainable river basin governance. Ecological Economics 68: 931–939.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aretano, R., I. Petrosillo, N. Zaccarelli, T. Semeraro, and G. Zurlini. 2013. People perception of landscape change effects on ecosystem services in small Mediterranean islands: A combination of subjective and objective assessments. Landscape and Urban Planning 112: 63–73. doi: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2012.12.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Belton, V., and T. Stewart. 2001. Multiple criteria decision analysis - an integrated approach. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kuwler Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  6. Berkes, F., and N.J. Turner. 2006. Knowledge, learning and the evolution of conservation practice for social–ecological system resilience. Human Ecology 34: 479–494. doi: 10.1007/s10745-006-9008-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brown, G. 2013. The relationship between social values for ecosystem services and global land cover: An empirical analysis. Ecosystem Services 5: 58–68. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2013.06.004.
  8. Casado-Arzuaga, I., I. Madariaga, and M. Onaindia. 2013. Perception, demand and user contribution to ecosystem services in the Bilbao Metropolitan Greenbelt. Journal of Environmental Management 129: 33–43. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.05.059.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Castillo, A., A. Magaña, A. Pujadas, L. Martínez, and C. Godínez. 2005. Understanding the interaction of rural people with ecosystems: A case study in a tropical dry forest of Mexico. Ecosystems 8: 630–643. doi: 10.1007/s10021-005-0127-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chan, K.M.A., T. Satterfield, and J. Goldstein. 2012a. Rethinking ecosystem services to better address and navigate cultural values. Ecological Economics 74: 8–18. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2011.11.011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chan, K.M.A., A.D. Guerry, P. Balvanera, S. Klain, T. Satterfield, X. Basurto, A. Bostrom, R. Chuenpagdee, et al. 2012b. Where are cultural and social in ecosystem services? A framework for constructive engagement. BioScience 62: 744–756. doi: 10.1525/bio.2012.62.8.7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chee, Y.E. 2004. An ecological perspective on the valuation of ecosystem services. Biological Conservation 120: 549–565. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2004.03.028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Comín, F.A., M. Menéndez, C. Pedrocchi, S. Moreno, R. Sorando, A. Cabezas, M. García, V. Rosas, et al. 2005. Wetland restoration: Integrating scientific–technical, economic, and social perspectives. Ecological Restoration 23: 182–186. doi: 10.3368/er.23.3.182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Costanza, R. 2000. Social goals and the valuation of ecosystem services. Ecosystems 3: 4–10. doi: 10.1007/s100210000002.
  15. Cowling, R.M., B. Egoh, A.T. Knight, P.J. O’Farrell, B. Reyers, M. Rouget’ll, D.J. Roux, A. Welz, et al. 2008. An operational model for mainstreaming ecosystem services for implementation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105: 9483–9488. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0706559105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Daily, G.C. 1997. Nature’s services: Societal dependence on natural ecosystems. Washington, DC: Island Press. Google Scholar
  17. Daniel, T.C., A. Muhar, A. Arnberger, O. Aznar, J.W. Boyd, K.M.A. Chan, R. Costanza, T. Elmqvist, et al. 2012. Contributions of cultural services to the ecosystem services agenda. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109: 8812–8819. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1114773109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Escalera Reyes, J. 2011. Public participation and socioecological resilience. In Human dimensions of ecological restoration, ed. D. Egan, E.E. Hjerpe, and J. Abrams, 79–92. Society for Ecological Restoration: Island Press/Center for Resource Economics.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Farley, J. 2012. Ecosystem services: The economics debate. Ecosystem Services 1: 40–49. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2012.07.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Feld, C.K., P. Martins da Silva, J. Paulo Sousa, F. De Bello, R. Bugter, U. Grandin, D. Hering, S. Lavorel, et al. 2009. Indicators of biodiversity and ecosystem services: A synthesis across ecosystems and spatial scales. Oikos 118: 1862–1871. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0706.2009.17860.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Felipe-Lucia, M.R. 2012. Social dimension of ecosystem services: The case of river Piedra’s valley. Sevilla: Universidad Pablo de Olavide.Google Scholar
  22. Folke, C., S. Carpenter, T. Elmqvist, L. Gunderson, C.S. Holling, and B. Walker. 2002. Resilience and sustainable development: Building adaptive capacity in a world of transformations. AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment 31: 437–440.Google Scholar
  23. Freeman, R.E. 2010. Strategic management: A stakeholder approach. Boston: Pitman Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Funtowicz, S.O., and J.R. Ravetz. 1994. The worth of a songbird: Ecological economics as a post-normal science. Ecological Economics 10: 197–207. doi: 10.1016/0921-8009(94)90108-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Garcia-Llorente, M., B. Martin-Lopez, I. Iniesta-Arandia, C.A. Lopez-Santiago, P.A. Aguilera, and C. Montes. 2012. The role of multi-functionality in social preferences toward semi-arid rural landscapes: An ecosystem service approach. Environmental Science & Policy 19–20: 136–146. doi: 10.1016/j.envsci.2012.01.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. De Groot, R.S., M.A. Wilson, and R.M.J. Boumans. 2002. A typology for the classification, description and valuation of ecosystem functions, goods and services. Ecological Economics 41: 393–408. doi: 10.1016/S0921-8009(02)00089-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hauck, J., C. Goerg, R. Varjopuro, O. Ratamaki, and K. Jax. 2013. Benefits and limitations of the ecosystem services concept in environmental policy and decision making: Some stakeholder perspectives. Environmental Science & Policy 25: 13–21. doi: 10.1016/j.envsci.2012.08.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hein, L., K. van Koppen, R.S. de Groot, and E.C. van Ierland. 2006. Spatial scales, stakeholders and the valuation of ecosystem services. Ecological Economics 57: 209–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hicks, C.C., T.R. McClanahan, J.E. Cinner, and J.M. Hills. 2009. Trade-offs in values assigned to ecological goods and services associated with different coral reef management strategies. Ecology and Society 14: 10.Google Scholar
  30. Hicks, C.C., N.A.J. Graham, and J.E. Cinner. 2013. Synergies and tradeoffs in how managers, scientists, and fishers value coral reef ecosystem services. Global Environmental Change 23: 1444–1453. doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2013.07.028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kremen, C., and R.S. Ostfeld. 2005. A call to ecologists: Measuring, analyzing, and managing ecosystem services. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 3: 540–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lamarque, P., U. Tappeiner, C. Turner, M. Steinbacher, R.D. Bardgett, U. Szukics, M. Schermer, and S. Lavorel. 2011. Stakeholder perceptions of grassland ecosystem services in relation to knowledge on soil fertility and biodiversity. Regional Environmental Change 11: 791–804. doi: 10.1007/s10113-011-0214-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Likert, R. 1932. A technique for the measurement of attitudes. Archives of Psychology 140: 1–55.Google Scholar
  34. Maass, J.M., P. Balvanera, A. Castillo, G.C. Daily, H.A. Mooney, P. Ehrlich, M. Quesada, A. Miranda, et al. 2005. Ecosystem services of tropical dry forests: Insights from long-term ecological and social research on the Pacific Coast of Mexico. Ecology and Society 10: 17.Google Scholar
  35. Martin, L.J., B. Blossey, and E. Ellis. 2012. Mapping where ecologists work: biases in the global distribution of terrestrial ecological observations. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 10: 195–201. doi: 10.1890/110154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Martín-López, B., E. Gómez-Baggethun, M. García-Llorente, and C. Montes. 2014. Trade-offs across value-domains in ecosystem services assessment. Ecological Indicators 37: 220–228. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2013.03.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Martín-López, B., I. Iniesta-Arandia, M. García-Llorente, I. Palomo, I. Casado-Arzuaga, D. García Del Amo, E. Gómez-Baggethun, E. Oteros-Rozas, et al. 2012. Uncovering ecosystem service bundles through social preferences. PLoS One 7: e3897. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Menzel, S., and J. Teng. 2010. Ecosystem services as a stakeholder-driven concept for conservation science. Conservation Biology 24: 907–909. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2009.01347.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA). 2005. Ecosystems and human well-being: Our human planet: Summary for decision makers. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  40. Moreno, J., I. Palomo, J. Escalera, B. Martín-López, and C. Montes. 2014. Incorporating ecosystem services into ecosystem-based management to deal with complexity: A participative mental model approach. Landscape Ecology: 1–15. doi: 10.1007/s10980-014-0053-8.
  41. Newton, A.C., K. Hodder, E. Cantarello, L. Perrella, J.C. Birch, J. Robins, S. Douglas, C. Moody, et al. 2012. Cost-benefit analysis of ecological networks assessed through spatial analysis of ecosystem services. Journal of Applied Ecology 49: 571–580. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02140.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Oteros-Rozas, E., J.A. Gonzalez, B. Martin-Lopez, C.A. Lopez, P. Zorrilla-Miras, and C. Montes. 2012. Evaluating ecosystem services in transhumance cultural landscapes an interdisciplinary and participatory framework. Gaia-Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society 21: 185–193.Google Scholar
  43. Plieninger, T., S. Dijks, E. Oteros-Rozas, and C. Bieling. 2013. Assessing, mapping, and quantifying cultural ecosystem services at community level. Land Use Policy 33: 118–129. doi: 10.1016/j.landusepol.2012.12.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Raymond, C.M., G.G. Singh, K. Benessaiah, J.R. Bernhardt, J. Levine, H. Nelson, N.J. Turner, B. Norton, et al. 2013. Ecosystem services and beyond: Using multiple metaphors to understand human–environment relationships. BioScience 63: 536–546. doi: 10.1525/bio.2013.63.7.7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Reyers, B., R. Biggs, G.S. Cumming, T. Elmqvist, A.P. Hejnowicz, and S. Polasky. 2013. Getting the measure of ecosystem services: a social–ecological approach. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 11: 268–273. doi: 10.1890/120144.
  46. Ringold, P.L., J. Boyd, D. Landers, and M. Weber. 2013. What data should we collect? A framework for identifying indicators of ecosystem contributions to human well-being. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 11: 98–105. doi: 10.1890/110156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Saaty, T.L. 1980. The analytic hierarchy process: Planning, priority setting, resource allocation. McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  48. Satz, D., R.K. Gould, K.M.A. Chan, A. Guerry, B. Norton, T. Satterfield, B.S. Halpern, J. Levine, et al. 2013. The challenges of incorporating cultural ecosystem services into environmental assessment. AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment 42: 675–684. doi: 10.1007/s13280-013-0386-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Spangenberg, J.H., and J. Settele. 2010. Precisely incorrect? Monetising the value of ecosystem services. Ecological Complexity 7: 327–337. doi: 10.1016/j.ecocom.2010.04.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tallis, H., S.E. Lester, M. Ruckelshaus, M. Plummer, K. McLeod, A. Guerry, S. Andelman, M.R. Caldwell, et al. 2012. New metrics for managing and sustaining the ocean’s bounty. Marine Policy 36: 303–306. doi: 10.1016/j.marpol.2011.03.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Trabucchi, M., F.A. Comín, and P.J. O’Farrell. 2013. Hierarchical priority setting for restoration in a watershed in NE Spain, based on assessments of soil erosion and ecosystem services. Regional Environmental Change 13: 911–926. doi: 10.1007/s10113-012-0392-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Turner, R.K., J. Paavola, P. Cooper, S. Farber, V. Jessamy, and S. Georgiou. 2003. Valuing nature: Lessons learned and future research directions. Ecological Economics 46: 493–510. doi: 10.1016/S0921-8009(03)00189-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Valles, M. 1999. Técnicas cualitativas de investigación social. Reflexión metodológica y práctica profesional. Madrid: Ed. Síntesis.Google Scholar
  54. Vermeulen, S., and I. Koziell. 2002. Integrating global and local values: A review of biodiversity assessment. London: IIED.Google Scholar
  55. Wegner, G., and U. Pascual. 2011. Cost-benefit analysis in the context of ecosystem services for human well-being: A multidisciplinary critique. Global Environmental Change-Human and Policy Dimensions 21: 492–504. doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2010.12.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wilson, M.A., and S.R. Carpenter. 1999. Economic valuation of freshwater ecosystem services in the United States: 1971–1997. Ecological Applications 9: 772–783. doi: 10.2307/2641328.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • María R. Felipe-Lucia
    • 1
  • Francisco A. Comín
    • 2
  • Javier Escalera-Reyes
    • 3
  1. 1.Instituto Pirenaico de Ecología-CSICJacaSpain
  2. 2.Instituto Pirenaico Ecología-CSICSaragossaSpain
  3. 3.Universidad Pablo de OlavideSevilleSpain

Personalised recommendations