Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution in China: Causes and Mitigation Measures
- 2.4k Downloads
Non-point source (NPS) pollution has been increasingly serious in China since the 1990s. The increases of agricultural NPS pollution in China is evaluated for the period 2000−2008 by surveying the literature on water and soil pollution from fertilizers and pesticides, and assessing the surplus nitrogen balance within provinces. The main causes for NPS pollution were excessive inputs of nitrogen fertilizer and pesticides, which were partly the result of the inadequate agricultural extension services and the rapid expansion of intensive livestock production with little of waste management. The annual application of synthetic nitrogen fertilizers and pesticides in China increased by 50.7 and 119.7%, respectively, during 1991−2008. The mitigation measures to reduce NPS pollution include: correct distortion in fertilizer prices; improve incentives for the recycling of organic manure; provide farmers with better information on the sound use of agro-chemicals; and tighten the regulations and national standards on organic waste disposal and pesticides use.
KeywordsNon-point source pollution Synthetic nitrogen fertilizers Organic manure Agricultural policy Mitigation strategy
Financial support was provided by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (40871123), the Chinese Academy of Sciences (KZCX2-YW-407, KSCX2-YW-N-038), the Beijing and Vancouver Secretariats of the China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development (CCICED) and the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA).
- Chanda, B., R. Katie, and L. Bao. 2009. China-Peoples Republic of Fertilizer. GAIN (Global Agricultural Information Network) Report Number: CH9082.Google Scholar
- Conway, G. 1994. Sustainable agriculture for a food secure world. Washington: CGIAR.Google Scholar
- Conway, G. 1997. The Doubly Green Revolution: Food for all in the 21st century. London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
- Editorial Committee of China Environment Yearbook (ECCEY). 2003. China environment yearbook. Beijing: China Environment Yearbook Press (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Editorial Committee of China Pesticide Development Report (ECCPDR). 2005. China pesticide development report. Beijing: Science Press of China (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Editorial Office of China Agriculture Statistical Yearbook (EOCASY). 2002–2009. China agriculture statistical yearbook. Beijing: China Agriculture Publication House (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Editorial Office of China State Statistical Bureau (EOCSSB). 2009. China statistical yearbook, Beijing: China Statistical Publication House (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2008. FAOSTAT-Agriculture database. http://www.fao.org/corp/statistics/en/. Accessed 10 June 2011.
- Ge, G.F., Z.J. Li, J. Zhang, L.G. Wang, M.G. Xu, J.B. Zhang, J.K. Wang, X.L. Xie, et al. 2009. Geographical and climatic differences in long-term effect of organic and inorganic amendments on soil enzymatic activities and respiration in field experimental stations of China. Ecological Complexity. doi: 10.1016/j.ecocom.2009.02.001.Google Scholar
- Huang, J.K., F.B. Qiao, L.X. Zhang, and S. Rozelle. 2001. Farm Pesticides, rice production, and human health. EEPSEA Research Report, ISSN 1608-5434, No. 2001-RR3.Google Scholar
- Ju, X.T., G.X. Xing, X.P. Chen, S.L. Zhang, L.J. Zhang, X.J. Liu, Z.L. Cui, B. Yin, et al. 2009. Reducing environmental risk by improving N management in intensive Chinese agricultural systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106(9): 3041–3046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Li, J., H.D. Zhang, J.H. Gon, Y. He, and D. Norse. 2006. Agrochemical use and nitrate pollution of groundwater in typical crop production areas of China-case studies in Hubei, Hunan, Shangdong and Hebei provinces. In Policy for Reducing Non-Point Pollution from Crop Production in China, ed. Z.L. Zhu, D. Norse, and B. Sun, 173–188. Beijing: China Environmental Science Press.Google Scholar
- Lin, Y.S., R.Z. Gong, and Z.L. Zhu. 2000. Pesticide and eco-environmental protection. Beijing: Chemical and Industrial Press (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Ma, W.Q., D.R. Mao, and F.S. Zhang. 2000. The problems in fertilization and measurements of preventing them in protective vegetable ground in Shandong. In: Fertilizing for sustainable production of high quality vegetables, ed. X.L. Li, F.S. Zhang, and G.H. Mi, 41–47. Beijing: Chinese Agricultural University Press (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People’s Republic of China (MEP). 2002. Environmental quality standards for surface water. GB 3838-2002. Standards Press of China.Google Scholar
- Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People’s Republic of China (MEP), National Bureau of Statistics of the People’s Republic of China (NBS), Ministry of Agriculture of the People’s Republic of China (MOA). 2010. The first national survey of pollution sources Bulletin (in Chinese). http://www.gov.cn/jrzg/2010-02/10/content_1532174.htm. Accessed 10 June 2011.
- Norse, D., J. Li, L. Jin, and Z. Zhang. 2001. Environmental costs of rice production in China: Lessons from Hunan and Hubei. Bethesda: Aileen International Press.Google Scholar
- Shao, Z.Q., and Q. Zhao. 2004. Improving pesticide utilization ratio by renovating machinery and improving spraying technique. China Plant Protection 24: 36–37. (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Shen, R.P., B. Sun, and Q.G. Zhao. 2005. Spatial and temporal variability of N, P and K balances in agroecosystems in China. Pedosphere 15: 347–355.Google Scholar
- State Environment Protection Agency (SEPA). 2000–2008. Report on the State Environment in China. http://www.sepa.gov.cn/. Accessed 01 August 2010 (in Chinese).
- Tu, Y.Q., H.Z. Yuan, S.H. Qi, D.B. Yang, and Q.L. Huang. 2003. Use efficiency and adverse effect of pesticide in China. World Pesticides 25: 1–4. (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Wu, S.X. 2005. The spatial and temporal change of nitrogen and phosphorus produced by livestock and poultry and their effects on agricultural non-point source pollution in China. PhD Thesis. Beijing: Chinese Agriculture Academy of Sciences (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Yang, L.Z., and B. Sun. 2008. Cycling, balance and management of nutrients in agroecosystems in China. Beijing: Science Press of China (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Yuan, X.Y. 2000. Primary appraisal of pollution for lakes of China. Volcanology and Mineral Resources 21: 128–136. (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Zhang, F.S. 1999. Some consideration to the improvement of nutrient resources utilization efficiency. In: Soil science towards 21st century. Proceedings of 9th National Congress of Soil Science Society of China. Nanjing, China: Soil Science Society of China (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Zhang L.X., J.K. Huang, F.B. Qiao, and S. Rozelle. 2006. Economic evaluation and analysis of fertilizer overuse by China’s farmers. In: Policy for reducing Non-point pollution from crop production in China, ed. Z.L. Zhu, D. Norse, and B. Sun, 233–258. Beijing: China Environmental Science Press.Google Scholar
- Zhang, Z.H., and L.R. Li. 2004. Groundwater resources of China. Beijing: SinoMaps Press.Google Scholar