AMBIO

, Volume 41, Issue 3, pp 221–234 | Cite as

Fog as a Fresh-Water Resource: Overview and Perspectives

  • Otto Klemm
  • Robert S. Schemenauer
  • Anne Lummerich
  • Pilar Cereceda
  • Victoria Marzol
  • David Corell
  • Johan van Heerden
  • Dirk Reinhard
  • Tseggai Gherezghiher
  • Jana Olivier
  • Pablo Osses
  • Jamal Sarsour
  • Ernst Frost
  • María J. Estrela
  • José A. Valiente
  • Gebregiorgis Mussie Fessehaye
Review Paper

Abstract

The collection of fog water is a simple and sustainable technology to obtain fresh water for afforestation, gardening, and as a drinking water source for human and animal consumption. In regions where fresh water is sparse and fog frequently occurs, it is feasible to set up a passive mesh system for fog water collection. The mesh is directly exposed to the atmosphere, and the foggy air is pushed through the mesh by the wind. Fog droplets are deposited on the mesh, combine to form larger droplets, and run down passing into a storage tank. Fog water collection rates vary dramatically from site to site but yearly averages from 3 to 10 l m−2 of mesh per day are typical of operational projects. The scope of this article is to review fog collection projects worldwide, to analyze factors of success, and to evaluate the prospects of this technology.

Keywords

Fog collection Large fog collector Standard fog collector Sustainability Water resource 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors express their gratitude to the many funding agencies, NGOs, and individual persons throughout the world, who all support fog collection projects, too many to be mentioned here individually. Two anonymous reviewers helped us to improve this manuscript, to whom the authors are indebted.

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Copyright information

© Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Otto Klemm
    • 1
  • Robert S. Schemenauer
    • 2
  • Anne Lummerich
    • 3
  • Pilar Cereceda
    • 4
  • Victoria Marzol
    • 5
  • David Corell
    • 6
  • Johan van Heerden
    • 7
  • Dirk Reinhard
    • 8
  • Tseggai Gherezghiher
    • 9
  • Jana Olivier
    • 10
  • Pablo Osses
    • 4
  • Jamal Sarsour
    • 11
  • Ernst Frost
    • 12
  • María J. Estrela
    • 13
  • José A. Valiente
    • 6
  • Gebregiorgis Mussie Fessehaye
    • 9
    • 14
  1. 1.Climatology Working GroupUniversity of MünsterMünsterGermany
  2. 2.FogQuest: Sustainable Water SolutionsKamloopsCanada
  3. 3.Alimón e.VNiederkrüchtenGermany
  4. 4.Atacama Desert CenterPontificia Universidad Católica de ChileSantiagoChile
  5. 5.Department of GeographyUniversity of La LagunaLa LagunaSpain
  6. 6.Laboratory of Meteorology-Climatology, Mixed Unit CEAM-UVEGThe CEAM FoundationPaternaSpain
  7. 7.Department of Geography, Geoinformatics and MeteorologyUniversity of PretoriaPretoriaSouth Africa
  8. 8.Munich Re FoundationMunichGermany
  9. 9.Vision EritreaAsmaraEritrea
  10. 10.Department of Environmental ScienceUniversity of South AfricaFloridaSouth Africa
  11. 11.Institut für Textil- und VerfahrenstechnikDenkendorfGermany
  12. 12.Water FoundationMunichGermany
  13. 13.Laboratory of Meteorology-Climatology, Mixed Unit CEAM-UVEG, Geography DepartmentUniversity of ValenciaValenciaSpain
  14. 14.University of Bern, National Centre of Competence in ResearchBerneSwitzerland

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