Microbial Contamination of Groundwater at Small Community Water Supplies in Finland
- 345 Downloads
The raw water quality and associations between the factors considered as threats to water safety were studied in 20 groundwater supplies in central Finland in 2002–2004. Faecal contaminations indicated by the appearance of Escherichia coli or intestinal enterococci were present in five small community water supplies, all these managed by local water cooperatives. Elevated concentrations of nutrients in raw water were linked with the presence of faecal bacteria. The presence of on-site technical hazards to water safety, such as inadequate well construction and maintenance enabling surface water to enter into the well and the insufficient depth of protective soil layers above the groundwater table, showed the vulnerability of the quality of groundwater used for drinking purposes. To minimize the risk of waterborne illnesses, the vulnerable water supplies need to be identified and appropriate prevention measures such as disinfection should be applied.
KeywordsDrinking water safety E. coli Faecal contamination Groundwater Small community water supply Water quality
Markku Lehtola and Johanna Rinta-Kanto are acknowledged for their work with the norovirus concentration. Panu Rantakokko is thanked for the humic fractions analysis and Tarja Pohjanvirta for shigatoxin analysis. Acknowledgment belongs also to Jarmo Siekkinen, who gave us water supply information essential for the study. The authors are also grateful to Prof. Marja-Liisa Hänninen for the critical reading of the manuscript. This study was supported by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry and by the Ministry of Education (Graduate School in Environmental Health-SYTYKE).
- Anonymous. 1997. Safe water from every tap: Improving water service to small communities. Washington, D.C., USA: Committee on Small Water Supply Systems, National Research Council, National Academy Press. http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=5291&page=1.
- Davison, A., D. Deere, M. Stevens, G. Howard, and J. Bartram. 2006. Water safety plan manual. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organisation (WHO). http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/wsp_manual.pdf.
- EPA. 2001. Method 1601: Male-specific (F+) and somatic coliphage in water by two-step enrichment procedure, 31 pp. Washington D.C., USA: United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water.Google Scholar
- European Union. 1998. Council directive 98/83/EC of 3 November 1998 on the quality of water intended for human consumption. Official Journal of European Communities L330: 32–54.Google Scholar
- Finnish Meteorological Institute. 2004. Monthly reports from May 2002 to April 2004. Helsinki, Finland: Finnish Meteorological Institute (in Finnish).Google Scholar
- Ford, T., G. Rupp, P. Butterfield, and A. Camper, eds. 2005. Protecting public health in small water systems. Report of an International Colloquium, May 9–12, 2004. Bozeman: Montana State University.Google Scholar
- Greenberg, A.E., L.S. Clesceri, and A.D. Eaton. 1995. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 19th ed. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association.Google Scholar
- Hänninen, M.L., H. Haajanen, T. Pummi, K. Wermundsen, M.L. Katila, H. Sarkkinen, I.T. Miettinen, and H. Rautelin. 2003. Detection and typing of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and analysis of indicator organisms in three waterborne outbreaks in Finland. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 69: 1391–1396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Heinonen-Tanski, H., and J. Uusi-Kämppä. 2001. Runoff of faecal microorganisms and nutrients from perennial grass ley after application of slurry and mineral fertiliser. Water Science and Technology 43(12): 143–146.Google Scholar
- Hobbie, J.E., R.J. Daley, and S. Jasper. 1977. Use of nucleopore filters for counting bacteria by fluorescence microscopy. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 33: 1225–1228.Google Scholar
- Hrudey, S.E., and E.J. Hrudey. 2004. Safe drinking water. Lessons from recent outbreaks in affluent nations. London, UK: IWA Publishing.Google Scholar
- Hulsmann, A. 2005. Small systems large problems—A European inventory of small water systems and associated problems. WeKnow (Web-based European Knowledge Network on Water)/Endware Report, 1 June 2005.Google Scholar
- ISO 10304-1. 1992. Water quality. Determination of dissolved fluoride, chloride, nitrite, orthophosphate, bromide, nitrate and sulfate ions, using liquid chromatography of ions. Part 1. Method for water with low contamination. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization (ISO).Google Scholar
- ISO 17995. 2005. Water quality. Detection and enumeration of thermotolerant Campylobacter species. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization (ISO).Google Scholar
- ISO 6222. 1999. Water quality. Enumeration of culturable micro-organisms. Colony count by the inoculation in a nutrient agar culture medium. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization (ISO).Google Scholar
- ISO 7899-2. 2000. Water quality. Detection and enumeration of intestinal enterococci. Part 2. Membrane filtration method. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization (ISO).Google Scholar
- ISO 9308-1. 2000. Water quality. Detection and enumeration of Escherichia coli and coliform bacteria. Part 1. Membrane filtration method. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization (ISO).Google Scholar
- Isomäki, E., Valve, M., Kivimäki, A.-L., and Lahti, K. 2008. Environment guide, operation and maintenance of small waterworks: 129 pp, Helsinki, Finland: Finnish Environment Institute. http://www.ymparisto.fi/default.asp?contentid=304594&lan=en.
- Kapperud, G., T. Vardund, E. Skjerve, E. Hornes, and T.E. Michaelsen. 1993. Detection of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in foods and water by immunomagnetic separation, nested polymerase chain reactions, and colorimetric detection of amplified DNA. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 59(9): 2938–2944.Google Scholar
- Lapinlampi, T., and S. Raassina, eds. 2002. Water supply and sewer systems 1998–2000. The Finnish Environment 541. Helsinki, Finland: Finnish Environment Institute (in Finnish).Google Scholar
- Miettinen, I.T., O. Zacheus, T. Pitkänen, M. Kuusi, and T. Vartiainen. 2007. Waterborne outbreaks in Finland in 1998–2005 [cited 2 May 2008]. http://www-domino.lippmann.lu/SWAP2007/Session8/08b%20Miettinen%20et%20al%20SWAP2007.pdf.
- Miettinen, I.T., O. Zacheus, C.H. von Bonsdorff, and T. Vartiainen. 2001. Waterborne epidemics in Finland in 1998–1999. Water Science and Technology 43(12): 67–71.Google Scholar
- NMKL 71. 1999. Salmonella. Detection in foods. Oslo, Norway: Nordic Committee on Food Analysis (NMKL).Google Scholar
- Reasoner, D.J., and E.E. Geldreich. 1985. A new medium for the enumeration and subculture of bacteria from potable water. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 49: 1–7.Google Scholar
- Schijven, J.F., J.H.C. Mülschlegel, S.M. Hassanizadeh, P.F.M. Teunis, and A.M. de Roda Husman. 2006. Determination of protection zones for Dutch groundwater wells against virus contamination—Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. Journal of Water and Health 4(3): 297–312.Google Scholar
- SFS 3036. 1981. Determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD Mn or KMnO 4 number) in water. Oxidation with permanganate. Helsinki, Finland: Finnish Standards Association (SFS).Google Scholar
- SFS-EN 1189. 1997. Water quality. Determination of phosphorus. Ammonium molybdate spectrometric method. Helsinki, Finland: Finnish Standards Association (SFS).Google Scholar
- SFS-EN 1484. 1997. Water analysis. Guidelines for the determination of total organic carbon (TOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Helsinki, Finland: Finnish Standards Association (SFS).Google Scholar
- Thisted Lambertz, S., A. Ballagi-Pordány, A. Nilsson, P. Norberg, and M.-L. Danielsson-Tham. 1996. A comparison between a PCR method and a conventional culture method for detecting pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in food. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 81: 303–308.Google Scholar
- WHO. 1997. Guidelines for drinking water quality. Volume 3: Surveillance and control of community supplies, 2nd edn. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/smallcommunity/en/index.html.
- WHO. 2004. Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 3rd edn. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/gdwq3/en/.