A toxicogenomics study of two chemicals in coffee roasting process

  • Kyung-Taek RimEmail author
  • Soo-Jin Kim
Original Article



Roasted coffee beans are broadly consumed in nearly all classes of the population. 2,3-Butanedione is a food flavor that causes obstructive bronchiolitis in microwave popcorn manufacturing workers. It can be naturally produced when coffee is roasted.


To determine effects of 2,3-butanedione (diacetyl) and 2,3-pentanedione on workers’ health during the coffee roasting process, we performed a toxicogenomics study for differentially expressed genes in lung cells after exposure to the two chemicals.


Gene selection was performed by clustering, gene ontology/pathway, and data mining using microarray data. Target microRNAs and genes were selected based on the expression of microRNAs and correlation analysis of genes and microRNAs. As a result of expression analysis of target gene miRNAs affected by the two chemicals, it was evaluated that Fosl1, Rb1, Aspn, Dusp1, Rnf19b, Jun, and Hbegf were over-regulated by targeting down-regulated miRNAs mutated by two chemicals. Using OMIM database and KEGG pathway, we found that Terc and Bmpr2 were two changed genes by matching with the KEGG disease pathway database.


Dosage, duration, exposure, and extrapolations are necessary to reflect effects of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione on workers in the coffee roasting process. This study focuses on early biochemical changes, mechanisms, and early biomarker discovery when normal lung cells are exposed to these two chemicals.


2,3-Butanedione Coffee Gene expression profile 2,3-Pentanedione Roasting 



This study was supported by the Korean Occupational Safety and Health Agency (Ulsan, Republic of Korea), the Ministry of Employment and Labor (Sejong, Republic of Korea), and a Grant-in Aid for chemical research (2018).

Author contributions

KTR designed the experiments and analyzed the results. SJK conducted the experiments and analyzed the raw data. All authors contributed to writing of the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Kyung-Taek Rim and Soo-Jin Kim declare that they have no conflicts of interest regarding the contents of this article.

Ethical approval

The article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors, and it has been carried out in accordance with the institutional and national guidelines.

Supplementary material

13273_2019_55_MOESM1_ESM.docx (49 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 49 kb)


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Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Toxicogenomics and Toxicoproteomics and Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chemicals Research Bureau, Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute, KOSHADaejeonKorea

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