Advertisement

Toward noise certification during design: airframe noise simulations for full-scale, complete aircraft

  • Mehdi R. KhorramiEmail author
  • Ehab Fares
Original Paper
  • 9 Downloads

Abstract

An overview of a recent, NASA-sponsored effort to substantially advance simulation-based airframe noise prediction is presented. An accurate characterization of this component of aircraft noise requires a high-fidelity representation of the finer geometrical details associated with the landing gear and wing high-lift devices, such as slats and flaps, which constitute major noise sources. To achieve this ambitious goal, a systematic approach was followed to extend our current state-of-the-art computational tools to a full-scale, complete aircraft in landing configuration within a realistic flight environment. The work involved several phases: high-fidelity, large-scale, unsteady flow simulations; model-scale experiments in ground-based facilities; and farfield noise prediction for a full-scale, complete aircraft. The comprehensive aeroacoustic database generated during the course of the 6-year effort provided a wealth of relevant information for full validation and benchmarking of the advanced computational tools used in the present work. The database will also foster the development of simulation methodologies with improved predictive capabilities.

Keywords

Airframe noise Full-scale aircraft Aeroacoustic simulation Business jet Noise prediction 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was entirely supported by the ERA project under the Integrated Aviation Systems Program (IASP) of NASA. Special thanks are due to Thomas Van de Ven (retired) and Scott Dutton of GAC for facilitating and assisting with transfer and development of the full-scale aircraft geometry model. Our gratitude also goes to Scott Brynildsen of Vigyan, Inc. for providing geometry modifications and CAD support. We would also like to express our sincere appreciation to Patrick Moran of the NASA Ames Research Center for high-quality visualizations and animations of the large data sets. The authors are also grateful to Benjamin Duda and Jason Appelbaum of Exa Corporation for their support on post-processing and geometry preparation. All the simulations were performed on the Pleiades supercomputer at the NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) facility at Ames Research Center. The logistical support provided by NAS staff, in particular Yan-Tyng (Sherry) Chang of Computer Sciences Corporation, is greatly appreciated.

References

  1. 1.
    Dobrzynski, W.: Almost 40 years of airframe noise research: what did we achieve. J. Aircraft. 47(2), 353–367 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chalot, F., Mallet, M., Roge, G.: Review of recent developments and future challenges for the simulation-based design of aircraft. In: International Council of Aeronautical Sciences Paper ICAS 210-2.10.3 (2010)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Abbas-Bayoumi, A., Becker, K.: An industrial view on numerical simulation for aircraft aerodynamic design. J. Math. Ind. 1, 10 (2011).  https://doi.org/10.1186/2190-5983-1-10 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Deck, S., Gand, F., Brunet, V., Ben Khelil, S.: High-fidelity simulations of unsteady civil aircraft aerodynamics: stakes and perspectives. Application of zonal detached eddy simulation. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2013.0325 Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Khorrami, M.R., Mineck, R.E.: Towards full-aircraft airframe noise prediction: detached eddy simulations. In: AIAA Paper 2014–2480 (2014)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mineck, R.E., Khorrami, M.R.: On the importance of spatial resolution for flap side edge noise prediction. In: AIAA Paper 2017–3694 (2017)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Slotnick, J., Khodadoust, A., Alonso, J., Darmofal, D., Gropp, W., Lurie, E., Mavriplis, D.: CFD Vision 2030 study: a path to revolutionary computational aerosciences. NASA Contractor Report NASA/CR-2014-218178 (2014)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Seror, C., Sagaut, P., Blanger, A.: A numerical aeroacoustics analysis of a detailed landing gear. In: AIAA Paper 2004–2884 (2004)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fares, E., Nölting, S.: Unsteady flow simulation of a high-lift configuration using a Lattice-Boltzmann approach. In: AIAA Paper 2011–0869 (2011)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Vatsa, V., Lockard, D.P., Khorrami, M.R., Carlson, J.-R.: Aeroacoustic simulation of a nose landing gear in an open-jet facility using FUN3D. In: AIAA Paper 2012–2280 (2012)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Casalino, D., Nölting, S., Fares, E., Vand de Ven, T., Perot, F., Bres, G.: Towards numerical aircraft noise certification: analysis of a full-scale landing gear in fly-over configuration. In: AIAA Paper 2012–2235 (2012)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Murayama, M., Yokokawa, Y., Imamura, T., Yamamoto, K., Ura, H., Hirai, T.: Numerical investigation on change of airframe noise by flap side-edge shape. In: AIAA Paper 2013–2067 (2013)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bouvy, Q., Rougier, T., Ghouali, A., Casalino, D., Appelbaum, J., Kleinclaus, C.: Design of quieter landing gears through lattice-Boltzmann CFD simulations. In: AIAA Paper 2015–3259 (2015)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Khorrami, M.R., Hannon, J.A., Neuhart, D.H., Markowski, G.A., Van de Ven, T.: Aeroacoustic studies of a high-fidelity aircraft model: part 1—steady aerodynamic measurements. In: AIAA Paper 2012–2233 (2012)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Khorrami, M.R., Neuhart, D.H.: Aeroacoustic studies of a high-fidelity aircraft model: part 2- unsteady surface pressures. In: AIAA Paper 2012–2234 (2012)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Khorrami, M.R., Humphreys, W.M. Jr., Lockard, D.P., Ravetta, P.A.: Aeroacoustic evaluation of flap and landing gear noise reduction concepts. In: AIAA Paper 2014–2478 (2014)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Neuhart, D., Hannon, J., Khorrami, M.R.: Aerodynamic measurements of a gulfstream aircraft model with and without noise reduction concepts. In: AIAA Paper 2014–2477 (2014)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yao, C.-S., Jenkins, L.N., Bartram, S.M., Harris, J., Khorrami, M.R., Mace, W.D.: Flow-field investigation of gear-flap interaction on a gulfstream aircraft model. In: AIAA Paper 2014–2479 (2014)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Khorrami, M.R., Lockard, D.P., Humphreys, W.M. Jr., Choudhari, M.M., Van de Ven, T.: Preliminary analysis of acoustic measurements from the NASA-gulfstream airframe noise flight test. In: AIAA Paper 2008–2814 (2008)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Khorrami, M.R., Humphreys, W.M. Jr., Lockard, D.P.: An assessment of flap and main landing gear noise abatement concepts. In: AIAA Paper 2015–2987 (2015)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Khorrami, M.R., Fares, E., Casalino, D.: Towards full-aircraft airframe noise prediction: lattice-Boltzmann simulations. In: AIAA Paper 2014–2481 (2014)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fares, E., Casalino, D., Khorrami, M.R.: Evaluation of airframe noise reduction concepts via simulations using a lattice-Boltzmann approach. In: AIAA Paper 2015–2988 (2015)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fares, E., Duda, B., Khorrami, M.R.: Airframe noise prediction of a full aircraft in model and full scale using a lattice Boltzmann approach. In: AIAA Paper 2016–2707 (2016)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Spalart, P.R., Deck, S., Shur, M.L., Squires, K.D., Strelets, M.K., Travin, A.: A new version of detached-eddy simulation, resistant to ambiguous grid densities. Theor. Comput. Fluid Dyn. 20, 181–195 (2006)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Menter, F.R., Kuntz, M., Bender, R.: A scale adaptive simulation model for turbulent flow predictions. AIAA Paper 2003–0767 (2003)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Qian, Y., d’Humieres, D., Lallemand, P.: Lattice: BGK models for the Navier–Stokes equation. Europhys. Lett. 17, 479–484 (1992)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chen, H., Chen, S., Matthaeus, W.: Recovery of the Navier–Stokes equations using a lattice-gas boltzmann method. Phys. Rev. A 45(8), 5339–5342 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Chen, S., Doolen, G.D.: Lattice Boltzmann method for fluid flows. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 30, 329–364 (1998)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chen, H., Teixeira, C., Molvig, K.: Realization of fluid boundary conditions via discrete Boltzmann dynamics. Int. J. Mod. Phys. C 9(8), 1281–1292 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Khorrami, M.R., Fares, E.: Simulation-based airframe noise prediction of a full-scale, full aircraft. In: AIAA Paper 2016–2706 (2016)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Khorrami, M.R., Fares, E., Duda, B., Hazir, A.: Computational evaluation of airframe noise reduction concepts at full scale. In: AIAA Paper 2016–2711 (2016)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ffowcs Williams, J.E., Hawkings, D.L.: Sound generated by turbulence and surfaces in arbitrary motion. Philos Trans R Soc A264(1151), 321–342 (1969)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Farassat, F., Succi, G.P.: The prediction of helicopter discrete frequency noise. Vertica 7(4), 309–320 (1983)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Najafi-Yazdi, A., Brès, G.A., Mongeau, L.: An acoustic analogy formulation for moving sources in uniformly moving media. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 467(2125), 144–165 (2011)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Khorrami, M.R., Mineck, R.E., Yao, C.S., Jenkins, L.N.: A comparative study of simulated and measured gear-flap flow interaction. In: AIAA Paper 2015–2989 (2015)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Konig, B., Fares, E., Ravetta, P., Khorrami, M.R.: A comparative study of simulated and measured main landing gear noise for large civil transports. In: AIAA Paper 2017–3013 (2017)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© This is a U.S. government work and its text is not subject to copyright protection in the United States; however, its text may be subject to foreign copyright protection 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.NASA Langley Research CenterHamptonUSA
  2. 2.Dassault Systemes Deutschland GmbHStuttgartGermany
  3. 3.Computational AeroSciences BranchHamptonUSA
  4. 4.SIMULIA A&DStuttgartGermany

Personalised recommendations