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Airframe noise modeling and prediction

  • Nicolas MolinEmail author
Review Paper
  • 44 Downloads

Abstract

With the installation on the most recent aircraft of large engines with a bypass ratio of 10–12, the engine noise contribution to the overall aircraft noise was reduced, and airframe noise has now become one of the most important noise sources during the approach phase. The paper presents a review of airframe noise analytical modeling and prediction. Indeed, aircraft manufacturers need prediction tools for rapid assessment of noise exposure around airports, standards certification noise levels as defined by the International Civil Aviation Organisation and optimized operational procedures at various stage of aircraft design. At present, this kind of noise model can only be based on analytical or semi-empirical modeling. For both slats, flaps and landing gears, main noise mechanisms are presented, as well as the associated noise models used at Airbus for airframe noise prediction. These models were validated with specific noise flight tests on various Airbus aircraft dedicated specifically to airframe noise measurements. Validation cases are presented at the end of the paper for three examples.

Keywords

Aeroacoustics Airframe noise Modeling Slat Flap Landing gear 

List of symbols

Att(fc)

Atmospheric absorption coefficients for a given propagation distance of 100 m in a given third octave band whose central frequency is fc

\({c_0}\)

Speed of sound

c

Profile chord

CAS

Calibrated airspeed

d

Characteristic distance

EPNL

Effective perceived noise levels

f

Frequency

φ

Trajectory-sound ray angle

\({\Phi _{{\text{pp}}}}\)

Wall pressure fluctuations’ spectrum

h

Aircraft altitude

HLD

High lift device

\({I_{\text{a}}}\)

Acoustic intensity

ICAO

International Civil Aviation Organisation

k

Acoustic wave number

κ

Hydrodynamic wavenumber

\({k_x},{k_y},{k_z}\)

Components turbulent kinetic corresponding to the components of velocity in the x, y, and z directions

l

Source characteristic dimension

L

Profile span

\({\ell _y}(\omega )\)

Correlation length along the span

λ

Acoustic wavelength

Λ

Turbulence integral length scale

L

Aerodynamic transfer function as defined by Amiet in [1]

SPL

Sound pressure level in third octave band

\({M_0}\)

Mach number of mean flow

\({M_{\text{c}}}\)

Mach number of turbulent structures convection inside the shear flow or inside the boundary layer

\({N_{\text{d}}}\)

Landing gear dressings density

ω

Pulsation

PNLT

Perceived noise level with tone corrected

r

Distance between the source and the observer

\(\rho _0\)

Air density

S

Profile surface

St

Strouhal number (= f d/U0)

\(S_{{{\text{pp}}}}^{{\text{A}}}\)

Pressure power spectral density in far field

\({S_{{\text{ww}}}}\)

Normal velocity fluctuations spectrum

θ

Complementary angle of the trajectory-sound ray angle ϕ = πθ

\({U_0}\)

Mean speed

\({U_{\text{c}}}\)

Convection speed of turbulent structures inside the mean flow

u, v, w

Fluctuating velocity in the x, y, z directions

x, y, z

Observer coordinate (also noted \(\vec {x}\))

Notes

References

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Copyright information

© Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Wing and Movables Airframe Noise - Acoustic Technical ReferentAirbus Opérations SASToulouseFrance

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