Different divergence events for three pairs of PEBPs in Gossypium as implied by evolutionary analysis

  • Youjun Lu
  • Wei Chen
  • Lanjie Zhao
  • Jinbo Yao
  • Yan Li
  • Weijun Yang
  • Ziyang Liu
  • Yongshan ZhangEmail author
  • Jie SunEmail author
Research Article



The phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) gene family plays a crucial role in seed germination, reproductive transformation, and other important developmental processes in plants, but its distribution in Gossypium genomes or species, evolutionary properties, and the fates of multiple duplicated genes remain unclear.


The primary objectives of this study were to elucidate the distribution and characteristics of PEBP genes in Gossypium, as well as the evolutionary pattern of duplication and deletion, and functional differentiation of PEBPs in plants.


Using the PEBP protein sequences in Arabidopsis thaliana as queries, blast alignment was carried out for the identification of PEBP genes in four sequenced cotton species. Using the primers designed according to the PEBP genome sequences, PEBP genes were cloned from 15 representative genomes of Gossypium genus, and the gene structure, CDS sequence, protein sequence and properties were predicted and phylogenetic analysis was performed. Taking PEBP proteins of grape as reference, grouping of orthologous gene, analysis of phylogeny and divergence of PEBPs in nine species were conducted to reconstruct the evolutionary pattern of PEBP genes in plants.


We identified and cloned 160 PEBPs from 15 cotton species, and the phylogenetic analysis showed that the genes could be classified into the following three subfamilies: MFT-like, FT-like and TFL1-like. There were eight single orthologous group (OG) members in each diploid and 16 double OG members in each tetraploid. An analysis of the expression and selective pressure indicated that expression divergence and strong purification selection within the same OG presented in the PEBP gene family.


An evolutionary pattern of duplication and deletion of the PEBP family in the evolutionary history of Gossypium was suggested, and three pairs of genes resulted from different whole-genome duplication events.


Gossypium PEBP Evolution Selective pressure Gene loss 



The study was supported, in part, by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Item Number: 31671740), the Natural Science Foundation of Henan Province (Item Number: 112300410019) and the State Key Laboratory of Cotton Biology (Item Number: CB2015C16).

Author contributions

YL, YZ and JS: designed the study; LZ, WC, JY, WY and YL: performed the experiments; YL, LZ and ZL: performed the data analysis; and YL and YZ: wrote the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing financial interests.

Supplementary material

13258_2018_775_MOESM1_ESM.docx (2.3 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 2316 KB)
13258_2018_775_MOESM2_ESM.xlsx (178 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (XLSX 177 KB)
13258_2018_775_MOESM3_ESM.xlsx (15 kb)
Supplementary Information 3: Gene expression data of the PEBP in G. hirsutum. (XLSX 15 KB)
13258_2018_775_MOESM4_ESM.pdf (156 kb)
Supplementary Information 4: Predicted gene structure of the cotton PEBPs. (PDF 156 KB)
13258_2018_775_MOESM5_ESM.rar (7.9 mb)
Supplementary material 5 (RAR 8054 KB)


  1. Adams KL, Wendel JF (2005) Polyploidy and genome evolution in plants. Curr Opin Plant Biol 8:135–141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams KL, Cronn R, Percifield R, Wendel JF (2003) Genes duplicated by polyploidy show unequal contributions to the transcriptome and organ-specific reciprocal silencing. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:4649–4654PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adams KL, Percifield R, Wendel JF (2004) Organ-specific silencing of duplicated genes in a newly synthesized cotton allotetraploid. Genetics 168:2217–2226PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Araki T, Kobayashi Y, Kaya H, Iwabuchi M (1998) The flowering-time gene FT and regulation of flowering in Arabidopsis. J Plant Res 111:277–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Banfield MJ, Barker JJ, Perry AC, Brady RL (1998) Function from structure? The crystal structure of human phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein suggests a role in membrane signal transduction. Structure 6:1245–1254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blanc G, Wolfe KH (2004) Widespread paleopolyploidy in model plant species inferred from age distributions of duplicate genes. Plant Cell 16:1667–1678PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bondarenko VS, Obolenska MY (2015) Bioinformatics analysis of cis-regulatory elements in Mbl1 and Mbl2 genes in Rattus norvegicus. Biopolym Cell 31:63–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bradley D, Carpenter R, Copsey L, Vincent C, Rothstein S, Coen E (1996) Control of inflorescence architecture in Antirrhinum. Nature 379:791–797CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bridges CB (1936) The bar “gene” a duplication. Science 83:210–211PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Cenci A, Combes MC, Lashermes P (2013) Differences in evolution rates among eudicotyledon species observed by analysis of protein divergence. J Hered 104:459–464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cenci A, Guignon V, Roux N, Rouard M (2014) Genomic analysis of NAC transcription factors in banana (Musa acuminata) and definition of NAC orthologous groups for monocots and dicots. Plant Mol Biol 85:63–80PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chardon F, Damerval C (2005) Phylogenomic analysis of the PEBP gene family in cereals. J Mol Evol 61:579–590PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chen W, Yao J, Chu L, Yuan Z, Li Y, Zhang Y (2015) Genetic mapping of the nulliplex-branch gene (gb_nb1) in cotton using next-generation sequencing. Theor Appl Genet 128:539–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chung KS, Yoo SY, Yoo SJ, Lee JS, Ahn JH (2010) BROTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (BFT), a member of the FT/TFL1 family, shows distinct pattern of expression during the vegetative growth of Arabidopsis. Plant Signal Behav 2010:1102–1104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cui L, Wall PK, Leebens-Mack JH, Lindsay BG, Soltis DE, Doyle JJ, Soltis PS, Carlson JE, Arumuganathan K, Barakat A et al (2006) Widespread genome duplications throughout the history of flowering plants. Genome Res 16:738–749PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Deng W, Wang Y, Liu Z, Cheng H, Xue Y (2013) HemI: a toolkit for illustrating heatmaps. PLoS ONE 9:e111988CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Doerks T, Copley RR, Schultz J, Ponting CP, Bork P (2002) Systematic identification of novel protein domain families associated with nuclear functions. Genome Res 12:47–56PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Edger PP, Pires JC (2009) Gene and genome duplications: the impact of dosage-sensitivity on the fate of nuclear genes. Chromosome Res 17:699PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Endrizzi JE, Turcotte EL, Kohel RJ (1985) Genetics, cytology and evolution of Gossypium. Adv Genet 23:271–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fischer I, Dainat J, Ranwez V, Glémin S, Dufayard J-F, Chantret N (2014a) Impact of recurrent gene duplication on adaptation of plant genomes. BMC Plant Biol 14:151PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fischer I, Dainat J, Ranwez V, Glémin S, Dufayard JF, Chantret N (2014b) Impact of recurrent gene duplication on adaptation of plant genomes. BMC Plant Biol 14(1):151PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Flagel LE, Wendel JF (2009) Gene duplication and evolutionary novelty in plants. New Phytol 183:557–564PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gomez-Mena C, Pineiro M, Franco-Zorrilla JM, Salinas J, Coupland G, Martinez-Zapater JM (2001) early bolting in short days: an Arabidopsis mutation that causes early flowering and partially suppresses the floral phenotype of leafy. Plant Cell 13:1011–1024PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gu Z, Rifkin SA, White KP, Li WH (2004) Duplicate genes increase gene expression diversity within and between species. Nat Genet 36:577–579PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Guo D, Li C, Dong R, Li X, Xiao X, Huang X (2014) Molecular cloning and functional analysis of the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) homolog GhFT1 from Gossypium hirsutum L. J Integr Plant Biol 57:522–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hanada K, Hase T, Toyoda T, Shinozaki K, Okamoto M (2011) Origin and evolution of genes related to ABA metabolism and its signaling pathways. J Plant Res 124:455–465PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hecht V, Foucher F, Ferrandiz C, Macknight R, Navarro C, Morin J, Vardy ME, Ellis N, Beltran JP, Rameau C et al (2005) Conservation of Arabidopsis flowering genes in model legumes. Plant Physiol 137:1420–1434PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hedman H, Källman T, Lagercrantz U (2009) Early evolution of the MFT-like gene family in plants. Plant Mol Biol 70:359–369PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hisamatsu T, King RW (2008) The nature of floral signals in Arabidopsis. II. Roles for FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and gibberellin. J Exp Bot 59:3821–3829PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ho WW, Weigel D (2014) Structural features determining flower-promoting activity of Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T. Plant Cell 26:552–564PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hu B, Jin J, Guo AY, Zhang H, Luo J, Gao G (2015) GSDS 2.0: an upgraded gene feature visualization server. Bioinformatics 31:1296PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Huang NC, Jane WN, Chen J, Yu TS (2012) Arabidopsis thaliana CENTRORADIALIS homologue (ATC) acts systemically to inhibit floral initiation in Arabidopsis. Plant J 72:175–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hughes AL, Nei M (1989) Evolution of the major histocompatibility complex: independent origin of nonclassical class I genes in different groups of mammals. Mol Biol Evol 6:559–579PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Innan H, Kondrashov F (2010) The evolution of gene duplications: classifying and distinguishing between models. Nat Rev Genet 11:97PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Jaillon O, Aury JM, Noel B, Policriti A, Clepet C, Casagrande A, Choisne N, Aubourg S, Vitulo N, Jubin C et al (2007) The grapevine genome sequence suggests ancestral hexaploidization in major angiosperm phyla. Nature 449:463–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jenczewski E, Alix K (2014) Polyploidy and genome evolution. Ann Bot 113:vii–viiiPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jiao Y, Wickett NJ, Ayyampalayam S, Chanderbali AS, Landherr L, Ralph PE, Tomsho LP, Hu Y, Liang H, Soltis PS et al (2011) Ancestral polyploidy in seed plants and angiosperms. Nature 473:97–100PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Kardailsky I, Shukla VK, Ahn JH, Dagenais N, Christensen SK, Nguyen JT, Chory J, Harrison MJ, Weigel D (1999) Activation tagging of the floral inducer FT. Science 286:1962–1965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Karlgren A, Gyllenstrand N, Kallman T, Sundstrom JF, Moore D, Lascoux M, Lagercrantz U (2011) Evolution of the PEBP gene family in plants: functional diversification in seed plant evolution. Plant Physiol 156:1967–1977PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Klintenäs M, Pin PA, Benlloch R, Ingvarsson PK, Nilsson O (2012) Analysis of conifer FLOWERING LOCUS T/TERMINAL FLOWER1-like genes provides evidence for dramatic biochemical evolution in the angiosperm FT lineage. New Phytol 196:1260–1273PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Kobayashi Y, Kaya H, Goto K, Iwabuchi M, Araki T (1999) A pair of related genes with antagonistic roles in mediating flowering signals. Science 286:1960–1962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kojima S, Takahashi Y, Kobayashi Y, Monna L, Sasaki T, Araki T, Yano M (2002) Hd3a, a rice ortholog of the Arabidopsis FT gene, promotes transition to flowering downstream of Hd1 under short-day conditions. Plant Cell Physiol 43:1096–1105PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Koornneef M, Hanhart CJ, van der Veen JH (1991) A genetic and physiological analysis of late flowering mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana. Mol Gen Genet 229:57–66PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Ksiazkiewicz M, Rychel S, Nelson MN, Wyrwa K, Naganowska B, Wolko B (2016) Expansion of the phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein family in legumes: a case study of Lupinus angustifolius L. FLOWERING LOCUS T homologs, LanFTc1 and LanFTc2. BMC Genomics 17:820PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kumar S, Stecher G, Tamura K (2016) MEGA7: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 7.0 for bigger datasets. Mol Biol Evol 33:1870–1874PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Larkin MA, Blackshields G, Brown NP, Chenna R, McGettigan PA, McWilliam H, Valentin F, Wallace IM, Wilm A, Lopez R et al (2007) Clustal W and Clustal X version 2.0. Bioinformatics 23:2947–2948PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Levy AA, Feldman M (2015) Genetic and epigenetic reprogramming of the wheat genome upon allopolyploidization. Biol J Linn Soc 82:607–613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Li WH, Yang J, Gu X (2005) Expression divergence between duplicate genes. Trends Genet 21:602–607PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Li F, Fan G, Wang K, Sun F, Yuan Y, Song G, Li Q, Ma Z, Lu C, Zou C et al (2014) Genome sequence of the cultivated cotton Gossypium arboreum. Nat Genet 46:567–572PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. Li F, Fan G, Lu C, Xiao G, Zou C, Kohel RJ, Ma Z, Shang H, Ma X, Wu J et al (2015) Genome sequence of cultivated Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum TM-1) provides insights into genome evolution. Nat Biotechnol 33:524–530PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lin MK, Belanger H, Lee YJ, Varkonyi-Gasic E, Taoka K, Miura E, Xoconostle-Cazares B, Gendler K, Jorgensen RA, Phinney B et al (2007) FLOWERING LOCUS T protein may act as the long-distance florigenic signal in the cucurbits. Plant Cell 19:1488–1506PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Liu W, Xie Y, Ma J, Luo X, Nie P, Zuo Z, Lahrmann U, Zhao Q, Zheng Y, Zhao Y (2015) IBS: an illustrator for the presentation and visualization of biological sequences. Bioinformatics 31:3359–3361PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Liu YY, Yang KZ, Wei XX, Wang XQ (2016) Revisiting the phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) gene family reveals cryptic FLOWERING LOCUS T gene homologs in gymnosperms and sheds new light on functional evolution. New Phytol 212:730–744PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lynch M, Conery JS (2000) The evolutionary fate and consequences of duplicate genes. Science 290:1151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lynch M, O’Hely M, Walsh B, Force A (2001) The probability of preservation of a newly arisen gene duplicate. Genetics 159:1789–1804PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Meng X, Muszynski MG, Danilevskaya ON (2011) The FT-like ZCN8 gene functions as a floral activator and is involved in photoperiod sensitivity in maize. Plant Cell 23:942–960PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Nei M, Kumar S (2001) Molecular evolution and phylogenetics. Heredity 86:385–385Google Scholar
  58. Nei M, Rogozin IB, Piontkivska H (2000) Purifying selection and birth-and-death evolution in the ubiquitin gene family. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:689–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Ohshima S, Murata M, Sakamoto W, Ogura Y, Motoyoshi F (1997) Cloning and molecular analysis of the Arabidopsis gene Terminal Flower 1. Mol Gen Genet 254:186–194PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. Osborn TC, Pires JC, Birchler JA, Auger DL, Chen ZJ, Lee HS, Comai L, Madlung A, Doerge RW, Colot V (2003) Understanding mechanisms of novel gene expression in polyploids. Trends Genet 19:141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Panchy N, Lehti-Shiu M, Shiu SH (2016) Evolution of Gene duplication in plants. Plant Physiol 171:2294–2316PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Papp B, Pál C, Hurst LD (2003) Evolution of cis-regulatory elements in duplicated genes of yeast. Trends Genet 19:417PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Paterson AH (2012) Genome and gene duplications and gene expression divergence: a view from plants. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1256:1–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Paterson AH, Chapman BA, Kissinger JC, Bowers JE, Feltus FA, Estill JC (2006) Many gene and domain families have convergent fates following independent whole-genome duplication events in Arabidopsis, Oryza, Saccharomyces and Tetraodon. Trends Genet 22:597–602PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Paterson AH, Bowers JE, Bruggmann R, Dubchak I, Grimwood J, Gundlach H, Haberer G, Hellsten U, Mitros T, Poliakov A (2009) The Sorghum bicolor genome and the diversification of grasses. Nature 457:551–556PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Project AG, Albert VA, Barbazuk WB, Depamphilis CW, Der JP, Leebensmack J, Ma H, Palmer JD, Rounsley S, Sankoff D (2013) The Amborella genome and the evolution of flowering plants. Science 342:1241089CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Ryu JY, Lee HJ, Seo PJ, Jung JH, Ji HA, Park CM (2014) The Arabidopsis floral repressor BFT delays flowering by competing with FT for FD binding under high salinity. Mol Plant 7:377–387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Saitou N, Nei M (1987) The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4:406–425PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. Sémon M, Wolfe KH (2007) Consequences of genome duplication. Curr Opin Genet Dev 17:505–512PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Senchina DS, Alvarez I, Cronn RC, Liu B, Rong J, Noyes RD, Paterson AH, Wing RA, Wilkins TA, Wendel JF (2003) Rate variation among nuclear genes and the age of polyploidy in Gossypium. Mol Biol Evol 20:633–643PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Song G, Cai R, Wang K, Guo L, Li S, Wang C, Zhang X (1998) A rapid improved CTAB method for extraction of cotton genomic DNA. Acta Gossypii Sin 10:273–275Google Scholar
  72. Trapnell C, Roberts A, Goff L, Pertea G, Kim D, Kelley DR, Pimentel H, Salzberg SL, Rinn JL, Pachter L (2016) Differential gene and transcript expression analysis of RNA-seq experiments with TopHat and Cufflinks. Nat Protoc 7:562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Turck F, Fornara F, Coupland G (2008) Regulation and identity of florigen: FLOWERING LOCUS T moves center stage. Annu Rev Plant Biol 59:573–594PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Vekemans D, Proost S, Vanneste K, Coenen H, Viaene T, Ruelens P, Maere S, Yves VDP, Geuten K (2012) Gamma paleohexaploidy in the stem lineage of core eudicots: significance for MADS-box gene and species diversification. Mol Biol Evol 29:3793PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. Voogd C, Brian LA, Wang T, Allan AC, Varkonyi-Gasic E (2017) Three FT and multiple CEN and BFT genes regulate maturity, flowering, and vegetative phenology in kiwifruit. J Exp Bot 68:1539–1553PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Wang D, Zhang Y, Zhang Z, Zhu J, Yu J (2010) KaKs_Calculator 2.0: a toolkit incorporating gamma-series methods and sliding window strategies. Genomics Proteomics Bioinform 8:77–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Wang K, Wang Z, Li F, Ye W, Wang J, Song G, Yue Z, Cong L, Shang H, Zhu S et al (2012) The draft genome of a diploid cotton Gossypium raimondii. Nat Genet 44:1098–1103PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. Wang Z, Zhou Z, Liu Y, Liu T, Li Q, Ji Y, Li C, Fang C, Wang M, Wu M et al (2015) Functional evolution of phosphatidylethanolamine binding proteins in soybean and Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 27:323–336PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Wendel JF, Cronn RC (2003) Polyploidy and the evolutionary history of cotton. Adv Agron 78:139–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Wendel JF, Brubaker CL, Seelanan T (2010) The origin and evolution of Gossypium. Springer, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Wickland DP, Hanzawa Y (2015) The FLOWERING LOCUS T/TERMINAL FLOWER 1 gene family: functional evolution and molecular mechanisms. Mol Plant 8:983–997CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Xi W, Yu H (2009) An expanding list: another flowering time gene, FLOWERING LOCUS T, regulates flower development. Plant Signal Behav 4:1142–1144PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Xi W, Liu C, Hou X, Yu H (2010) MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 regulates seed germination through a negative feedback loop modulating ABA signaling in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 22:1733–1748PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Yang Z, Nielsen R (2000) Estimating synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates under realistic evolutionary models. Mol Biol Evol 17:32–43PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. Yue JX, Li JP, Wang D, Araki H, Tian DC, Yang SH (2010) Genome-wide investigation reveals high evolutionary rates in annual model plants. BMC Plant Biol 10:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Zhang J (2003) Evolution by gene duplication: an update. Trends Ecol Evol 18:292–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Zhang T, Hu Y, Jiang W, Fang L, Guan X, Chen J, Zhang J, Saski CA, Scheffler BE, Stelly DM et al (2015) Sequencing of allotetraploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. acc. TM-1) provides a resource for fiber improvement. Nat Biotechnol 33:531–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Zhang X, Wang C, Pang C, Wei H, Wang H, Song M, Fan S, Yu S (2016) Characterization and functional analysis of PEBP family genes in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). PLoS ONE 11:e0161080PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Zuckerkandl E, Pauling L (1965) Evolutionary divergence and convergence in proteins. Evol Genes Proteins 97:97–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Genetics Society of Korea 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Agriculture/The Key Laboratory of Oasis Eco-AgricultureShihezi UniversityShiheziChina
  2. 2.Cotton Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS)/State Key Laboratory of Cotton BiologyAnyangChina
  3. 3.Research Base, Anyang Institute of TechnologyState Key Laboratory of Cotton BiologyAnyangChina
  4. 4.University of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada

Personalised recommendations