Pelagic larval dispersal habits influence the population genetic structure of clam Gomphina aequilatera in China
Pelagic larval dispersal habits influence the population genetic structure of marine mollusk organisms via gene flow. The genetic information of the clam Gomphina aequilatera (short larval stage, 10 days) which is ecologically and economically important in the China coast is unknown. To determine the influence of planktonic larval duration on the genetic structure of G. aequilatera. Mitochondrial markers, cytochrome oxidase subunit i (COI) and 12S ribosomal RNA (12S rRNA), were used to investigate the population structure of wild G. aequilatera specimens from four China Sea coastal locations (Zhoushan, Nanji Island, Zhangpu and Beihai). Partial COI (685 bp) and 12S rRNA (350 bp) sequences were determined. High level and significant FST values were obtained among the different localities, based on either COI (FST = 0.100–0.444, P < 0.05) or 12S rRNA (FST = 0.193–0.742, P < 0.05), indicating a high degree of genetic differentiation among the populations. The pairwise Nm between Beihai and Zhoushan for COI was 0.626 and the other four pairwise Nm values were > 1, indicating extensive gene flow among them. The 12S rRNA showed the same pattern. AMOVA test results for COI and 12S rRNA indicated major genetic variation within the populations: 77.96% within and 22.04% among the populations for COI, 55.73% within and 44.27% among the populations for 12S rRNA. A median-joining network suggested obvious genetic differentiation between the Zhoushan and Beihai populations. This study revealed the extant population genetic structure of G. aequilatera and showed a strong population structure in a species with a short planktonic larval stage.
KeywordsGenetic population structure Gomphina aequilatera COI 12S rRNA
This work was financially supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province (Grant No.: LQ18D060004) and the Open Foundation from Fishery Sciences in the First-Class Subjects of Zhejiang (Grant Nos.: 20160002, 20160017).
JL conceived and designed the experiments. YY, ZF and YT performed the experiments. YY and JL analyzed the data. YY and CW contributed reagents/materials/sampling/analysis tools. YY wrote the paper. BG and ZL collected field material and processed the samples.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Yingying Ye declares that she does not have conflict of interest. Zeqin Fu declares that he does not have conflict of interest. Yunfang Tian declares that she does not have conflict of interest. Jiji Li declares that he does not have conflict of interest. Baoying Guo declares that she does not have conflict of interest. Zhenming Lv declares that he does not have conflict of interest. Changwen Wu declares that he does not have conflict of interest.
All animal sampling and experiments were reviewed and approved by the State Oceanic Administration of China and the Ethics Committee of Zhejiang Ocean University, and were performed according to national laws and regulations.
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