The purpose is to calculate the composite 3D biological effective dose (BED) distribution in healthy liver, when multiple lesions are treated concurrently with different hypo-fractionated schemes and stereotactic body radiation therapy, and to investigate the potential of biological based plan optimization. Two patients, each having two tumors that were treated sequentially with different treatment plans, were selected. The treatment information of both treatment plans of the patients was used and their dose matrices were exported to an in-house MATLAB software, which was used to calculate the composite BED distribution. The composite BED distributions were used to determine if the healthy liver received BED beyond tolerance. When the dose to the minimum critical volume was less than tolerance, an optimization code was used to derive the scaling factors (ScF) that should be applied to the dose matrix of each plan until the minimum critical volume of healthy liver reaches a BED close to tolerance. It was shown that for each patient, there is a margin for dose escalation regarding the doses to the individual targets. More specifically, the ScFs of the doses range between 5.6 and 99 in the first patient, whereas for the second patient, the ScFs of the optimal doses range between 12.7 and 35.6. The present study indicates that there is a significant margin for dose escalation without increasing the radiation toxicity to the healthy liver. Also, the calculation of the composite BED distribution can provide additional information that may lead to a better assessment of the liver’s tolerance to different fractionation schemes and prescribed doses as well as more clinically relevant treatment plan optimization.
BED Biological Optimization Liver cancer radiotherapy Multi-phase treatment protocols
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Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this paper.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Medical University of Warsaw and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants.
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