Sulfonated Cross-Linked Poly(ether ether ketone) Films with Wrinkled Structures: Preparation and Vanadium Ions Permeability

  • Abdul G. Al LafiEmail author
  • Reem Hasan
  • Nedal Al-Kafri


Wrinkling patterns were fabricated by sulfonation of ion irradiated poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK). A variety of wrinkling patterns in the micrometer to sub-micrometer range were observed and were controlled by the adsorbed dose and dose rate of the irradiated ions as well as the sulfonation time. Because of the properties of these micro-textured membranes, they are promising for a broad range of applications. In particular, the cross-linked membranes had a very low permeability of vanadium ions, i.e. 1.5 × 10−7 cm2 min−1 due to their wrinkled structures in combination with the Donnan exclusive effect.


ion irradiation sulfonation poly(ether ether ketone) wrinkled structure permeability vanadium ion 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



The authors thank Prof. James N. Hay and Prof. David J. Parker for allowing the use of irradiation facility. Thanks are also due to Prof. I. Othman; the DG of the AEC of Syria and Prof. Z Ajji the Head of Chemistry Department for their support. The authors would also like to thank T. Hassan and J. Abo Hlal for their technical supports.

Supplementary material

13233_2019_7166_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (414 kb)
Calculation of degree of sulfonation, DS and the ion exchange capacity, IEC from 1H NMR spectra


  1. (1).
    A. Chapiro, in High Polymers, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1962, Vol. 15, pp 37–66 and 339–385.Google Scholar
  2. (2).
    A. Charlesby, Atomic Radiation and Polymers, Pergamon Press Ltd., London. 1960.Google Scholar
  3. (3).
    M. D. Huntington, C. J. Engel, A. J. Hryn, and T. W. Odom, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 5, 6438 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. (4).
    C.-M. Chen and S. Yang, Polym. Int., 61, 1041 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. (5).
    J.-W. Ha and S. Park, Macromol. Res., 25, 1 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. (6).
    S. Najeeb, M. S. Zafar, Z. Khurshid, and F. Siddiqui, J. Prosth. Res., 60, 12 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. (7).
    T. Sasuga and H. Kudoh, Polymer, 41, 185 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. (8).
    A. H. EI-Sayed, T. Sasuga, and T. Seguchi, Polymer, 33, 2911 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. (9).
    H.-Y. Jung, S. Jeong, and Y. Kwon, J. Electrochem. Soc., 163, A5090 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. (10).
    J. Lee, Y. Ahn, and D. Kim, Macromol. Res., 27, 175 (2019).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. (11).
    M. L. Perry and A. Z. Weber, J. Electrochem. Soc., 163, A5064 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. (12).
    C. Minke and T. Turek, J. Power Sources, 376, 66 (2018).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. (13).
    Q. Luo, H. Zhang, J. Chen, D. You, C. Sun, and Y. Zhang, J. Membr. Sci., 325, 553 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. (14).
    X. Yan, C. Zhang, Y. Dai, W. Zheng, X. Ruan, and G. He, J. Membr. Sci., 544, 98 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. (15).
    Y. Ji, Z. Y. Tay, and S. F. Y. Li, J. Membr. Sci., 539, 197 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. (16).
    A. G. Al-Lafi, Polym. Bull., 68, 2269 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. (17).
    A. G. Al-Lafi, J. N. Hay, and D. J. Parker, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 132, 41999 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. (18).
    A. G. Al-Lafi, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 131, 2593 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. (19).
    A. G. Al-Lafi and J. N. Hay, Thermochim. Acta, 612, 63 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. (20).
    J. B. Kim, P. Kim, N. C. Pegard, S. J. Oh, C. R. Kagan, J. W. Fleischer, H. A. Stone, and Y.-L. Loo, Nature Photonics, 6, 327 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. (21).
    J.-H. Lee, H. W. Ro, R. Huang, P. Lemaillet, T. A. Germer, C. L. Soles, and C. M. Stafford, Nano Letters, 12, 5995 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. (22).
    E. Bonaccurso and K. Graf, Langmuir, 20, 11183 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. (23).
    M.-W. Moon, S. H. Lee, J.-Y. Sun, K. H. Oh, A. Vaziri, and J. W. Hutchinson, PNAS, 104, 1130 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. (24).
    A. G. Al-Lafi, J. N. Hay, and D. J. Parker, J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys., 46, 2212 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. (25).
    N. Shibuya and R. S. Porter, Macromolecules, 25, 6495 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. (26).
    M. T. Bishop, F. E. Karasz, and P. S. Russet, Macromolecules, 18, 86 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. (27).
    A. G. Al-Lafi and J. N. Hay, J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys., 47, 775 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. (28).
    A. G. Al-Lafi and J. N. Hay, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 128, 3000 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. (29).
    J. Crank, The Mathematics of Diffusion, Oxford University Press, New York, 1975.Google Scholar
  30. (30).
    M. L. D. Vona, D. Marani, A. D’Epifanio, S. Licoccia, I. Beurroies, R. Denoyel, and P. Knauth, J. Membr. Sci., 304, 76 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. (31).
    M. L. D. Vona, E. Sgreccia, S. Licoccia, M. Khadhraoui, R. Denoyel, and P. Knauth, Chem. Mater., 20, 4327 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. (32).
    J. Qiu, M. Li, J. Ni, Maolin Zhai, J. Peng, L. Xu, H. Zhou, J. Li, and G. Wei, J. Membr. Sci., 297, 174 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. (33).
    Q. Luo, H. Zhang, J. Chen, P. Qian, and Y. Zhai, J. Membr. Sci., 311, 98 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. (34).
    A. G. Al-Lafi, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 132, Article No. 41242 (2015).Google Scholar
  35. (35).
    A. G. Al-Lafi, J. Polym. Res., 25, 105 (2018).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. (36).
    P. Staiti, F. Lufrano, A. S. Arico, E. Passalacqua, and V. Antonucci, J. Membr. Sci., 188, 71 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. (37).
    K. K. Poornesh, C. Cho, and Y. Tak, Am. J. Mater. Sci., 5, 175 (2015).Google Scholar
  38. (38).
    P. J. Yoo, Electr. Mater. Lett., 7, 17 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. (39).
    J. Kim and H. H. Lee, J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys., 39, 1122 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. (40).
    J. Yin, X. Han, Y. Cao, and C. Lu, Sci. Rep., 4, 5710 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. (41).
    J. Y. Chung, A. J. Nolte, and C. M. Stafford, Adv. Mater., 21, 1358 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. (42).
    H. Vandeparre, S. Gabriele, F. Brau, C. Gay, K. K. Parker, and P. Damman, Soft Matter, 6, 5751 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. (43).
    D. Chandra and A. J. Crosby, Adv. Mater., 23, 3441 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. (44).
    N. Uchida and T. Ohzono, Soft Matter, 6, 5729 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. (45).
    J.-M. Song, J. Shin, J.-Y. Sohn, and Y. C. Nho, Macromol. Res., 19, 1082 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. (46).
    E.-B. Lee, Q. B. Meng, J. Shin, and Y.-S. Lee, Macromol. Res., 22, 1090 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. (47).
    Y. Quan, G. Wang, A. Li, X. Wei, F. Li, J. Zhang, J. Chen, and R. Wang, RSC Adv., 9, 3838 (2019).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. (48).
    X. Luo, Z. Lu, J. Xi, Z. Wu, W. Zhu, L. Chen, and X. Qiu, J. Phys. Chem. B, 109, 20310 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. (49).
    C. Jia, J. Liu, and C. Yan, J. Power Sources, 195, 4380 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. (50).
    P. W. Majsztrik, M. B. Satterfield, A. B. Bocarsly, and J. B. Benziger, J. Membr. Sci., 301, 93 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. (51).
    S. Kim, J. Yan, B. Schwenzer, J. Zhang, L. Li, J. Liu, Z. G. Yang, and M. A. Hickner, Electrochem. Commun., 12, 1650 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. (52).
    J. Zhang, G. Wang, F. Wang, J. Zhang, J. Chen, and R. Wang, J. Electroanal. Chem., 783, 76 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. (53).
    J. Ren, Y. Dong, J. Dai, H. Hu, Y. Zhu, and X. Teng, J. Membr. Sci., 544, 186 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. (54).
    S. Sarkar, A. K. SenGupta, and P. Prakash, Environ. Sci. Technol., 44, 1161 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. (55).
    I. S. Chae, T. Luo, G. H. Moon, W. Ogieglo, Y. S. Kang, and M. Wessling, Adv. Energy Mater., 6, 1600517 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. (56).
    Z. Xia, L. Ying, J. Fang, Y.-Y. Du, W.-M. Zhang, X. Guo, and J. Yin, J. Membr. Sci., 525, 229 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Polymer Society of Korea and Springer 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryAtomic Energy CommissionDamascusSyrian Arab Republic
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsAtomic Energy CommissionDamascusSyrian Arab Republic

Personalised recommendations