Fungal Diversity

, Volume 98, Issue 1, pp 161–194 | Cite as

A global review of the ecological significance of symbiotic associations between birds and fungi

  • Todd F. ElliottEmail author
  • Michelle A. Jusino
  • James M. Trappe
  • Heino Lepp
  • Guy-Anthony Ballard
  • Jeremy J. Bruhl
  • Karl Vernes


Symbiotic associations between mammals and fungi have been well documented and are widely regarded as vital to ecosystem functions around the world. Symbioses between birds and fungi are also ecologically vital but have been far less thoroughly studied. This manuscript is the first to review a wide range of symbiotic associations between birds and fungi. We compile the largest list to date of bird species reported to eat fungi (54 bird species in 27 families) and follow up with a discussion of these symbioses and suggestions for how future studies can determine the prevalence of associations between birds and fungi. We review the importance of fungi for cavity-excavating birds and show that at least 30 bird species in three families form varying levels of associations with fungi for cavity excavation. We also review the use of fungal rhizomorphs in nest construction and show that 176 bird species in 37 families use fungal material in their nests. All of these interactions have wide-reaching ecosystem implications, particularly in regard to fungal dispersal and biogeography, plant health, ecosystem function, bird nutrition/fitness and bird behaviour.


Mycorrhizae Fungal dispersal Ornithomycological associations Bird nutrition Mycophagy Rhizomorphs Cavity-nesting Tree hollows 



We are grateful to expert naturalist and biologist Hugh Wilson of Hinewai Reserve in New Zealand for his assistance in this research and allowing us access to sample truffles and study bird-fungal interactions at the location he manages on the Banks Peninsula. The first and third authors are especially grateful to Dr. Lynette Liddle for accompanying us to Mutitjulu Community and introducing us to Rynee Kulitja, who was incredibly generous with her time and knowledge. The research librarians at the Dixson Library of the University of New England in Australia and the Valley Library of Oregon State University in the USA were vital in enabling our access to some of the more obscure references cited in this manuscript. Kelsey Elliott and James Skelton provided editorial insights on the manuscript. The School of Environmental and Rural Science at the University of New England provided facilities and an International Postgraduate Research Scholarship to the first author. The Marshall family of Terra Preta Truffles and the Stricklands of Walnut Creek Preserve were instrumental in providing support for this project.


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Copyright information

© School of Science 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ecosystem Management, School of Environmental and Rural ScienceUniversity of New EnglandArmidaleAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Plant PathologyUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  3. 3.Department of Forest Ecosystems and SocietyOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA
  4. 4.Forestry Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Research StationU.S. Forest ServiceCorvallisUSA
  5. 5.Honorary Scientific AssociateAustralian National Botanic GardensCanberraAustralia
  6. 6.School of Environmental and Rural SciencesUniversity of New EnglandArmidaleAustralia
  7. 7.Vertebrate Pest Research Unit, Biosecurity NSW, NSW Department of Primary IndustriesUniversity of New EnglandArmidaleAustralia
  8. 8.Botany, School of Environmental and Rural ScienceUniversity of New EnglandArmidaleAustralia

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