Case Control Study to Compare Serum Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Level in Women with Recurrent Pregnancy Loss (RPL) Compared to Women with Term Pregnancy

  • Pallavi GuptaEmail author
  • Sujata Deo
  • S. P. Jaiswar
  • P. L. Sankhwar
Original Article



Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is defined as three or more spontaneous pregnancy losses before the 20th week of gestation or fetal weight of < 500 gm from the last menstrual period. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is essential for implantation, development of embryo and placental angiogenesis. Women with low VEGF level are believed to be at higher risk of RPL.


To measure the level of VEGF in women with RPL and compare it with women with 1 or more successful pregnancies.


This is a Case control study carried out in King George Medical University, Lucknow from August 2015 to 2016. Participants sample size was 60 women. Thirty women with 3 or more spontaneous abortions were included as cases, and 30 women with at least 1 successful term pregnancy were controls. Serum VEGF level was analyzed using ELISA kit. Main outcome measured: 1. Serum VEGF level in the two groups. 2. Serum VEGF level in different underlying etiologies in women with RPL.


Mean VEGF level was 105.3 pg/mL in RPL cases, while it was 156.8 pg/mL in fertile controls. (p = 0.01). VEGF level was 86.2 pg/mL in patients with anatomical defects, 109 pg/mL in APLA syndrome, 85.1 pg/mL in hypothyroidism and 122.2 pg/mL in unexplained RPL.


The mean serum VEGF level was significantly lower in women with recurrent pregnancy loss compared with women with successful term pregnancy, implicating its role in maintaining pregnancy.


Recurrent pregnancy loss Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) Antiphospholipid syndrome 


Author’s contributions

PG collected patient data and samples, ELISA test of VEGF, statistical analysis, research and review of the literature, write-up of the article, submission and correspondence with editors. SD conceived the idea for the project and literature search, data analysis and write-up. SPJ reviewed the article and contributed to data analysis. PLS reviewed final article and did proofreading and data analysis.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Standards

Ethical clearance was obtained from Institutional ethical committee, Office of research cell, KGMU, Lucknow, India, for the project titled “study of serum Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) level in cases of recurrent spontaneous abortion,” dated 4/12/2015, ref no 7963/ethics/R cell-15.

Research Involving Human Participants

Written and informed consent was taken from all participants.


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Copyright information

© Federation of Obstetric & Gynecological Societies of India 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Obstetrics and GynecologyKing George Medical UniversityLucknowIndia

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