Hypocholesterolaemic action of Lactobacillus plantarum VJC38 in rats fed a cholesterol-enriched diet
- 39 Downloads
This study was conducted to evaluate hypocholesterolaemic activity of probiotic strains Lactobacillus plantarum VJC38 and VJI21 in Wistar albino rats fed a cholesterol-enriched diet. The experimental animals were divided into five groups (n = 6) viz., normal diet control group (NDC), hypercholesterolaemic diet (HD) control group (HDC), HD supplemented with 3 × 108 CFU/ml of L. plantarum VJC38 group (HD-C38), HD supplemented with 3 × 108 CFU/ml of L. plantarum VJI21 group (HD-I21), and HD supplemented with 3 × 108 CFU/ml of L. rhamnosus GG group (HD-GG) as positive control. Animals were administered bacterial culture by oral gavage once daily for 45 days. After trial, animals were sacrificed and blood samples were collected. Serum total cholesterol (T-CHO), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, glucose, glutamyl pyruvate transaminase (GPT), and glutamyl oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) levels were determined. Serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels were estimated using the Friedewald’s equation. Liver and fecal lipid contents and fecal cholic acids were measured. Serum T-CHO levels were significantly decreased by 15.6 and 17.4% in the HD-GG and HD-C38 groups, respectively, but not in the HD-I21 group compared with HDC group (P < 0.05). HD-GG and HD-C38 groups showed 26.3 and 27.2% reduction in serum LDL cholesterol, respectively when compared with HDC group (P < 0.05). Serum LDL cholesterol levels in HD-I21 group were not significantly different from HDC group. Serum TG levels in the HD-GG and HD-C38 were decreased by 14.2 and 22.8%, respectively compared with HDC group (P < 0.05). Liver T-CHO and TG levels in the HD-GG, HD-C38, and HD-I21 were reduced significantly compared with the HDC group (P < 0.05). Atherogenic coefficient values of HD-GG, HD-C38, and HD-21 were significantly decreased compared with HDC group (P < 0.05). Serum GPT levels in the HD-GG, HD-C38, and HD-I21 were decreased by 20.6, 10.9, and 20.6%, respectively, vs. the HDC group. Serum GOT levels were not significantly different among the groups. Serum glucose levels were significantly low in HD-GG, HD-C38, and HD-I21 compared with HDC group (P < 0.05). Fecal cholesterol and cholic acid levels were significantly higher in the HD-C38 and HD-GG groups than other groups (P < 0.05). This study suggests that L. plantarum VJC38 exhibits hypocholesterolaemic effect through hydrolysis of conjugated bile acids in the small intestine and excretion of cholesterol in feces. Lactobacillus plantarum VJC38 could be used as a potential cholesterol-lowering probiotic after validation of the hypocholesterolaemic activity in placebo-controlled human clinical trials.
KeywordsHypocholesterolaemic activity Lactobacillus plantarum Probiotic Rats
The authors thank DST-FIST and UGC-SAP for financial assistance to the Department. Mr. Venkata Satyanarayana Nallala is thankful to Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi, and University Grants Commission (UGC), New Delhi, for the financial support in the form of fellowship.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Research involving human participants and/or animals
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. Before conducting the animal experiments, prior approval of the Institute’s Animal Ethics Committee, Pondicherry University was obtained and animal studies were performed in accordance with the guidelines of Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA), New Delhi, India.
- Bottazzi V, Zacconi C, Gonzaga E, Paladino M (1986) Absorption of cholesterol by intestinal lactic acid bacteria. Ann Microbiol 36:1–5Google Scholar
- Damodharan K, Lee YS, Palaniyandi SA, Yang SH, Suh JW (2015b) Preliminary probiotic and technological characterization of Pediococcus pentosaceus strain KID7 and invivo assessment of its cholesterol-lowering activity. Front Microbiol 6(768). https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2015.00768
- FAO/WHO (2002) Joint FAO/WHO working group report on drafting guidelines for the evaluation of probiotics in food. London, Ontario, Canada. https://www.who.int/foodsafety/fs_management/en/probiotic_guidelines.pdf
- Hosono A, Tonooka T (1995) Binding of cholesterol with lactic-acid bacterial-cells. MILCHWISSENSCHAFT 50:556–560Google Scholar
- Jenkins DJA, Mirrahimi A, Srichaikul K, Berryman CE, Wang L, Carleton A, Abdulnour S, Sievenpiper JL, Kendall CW, Kris-Etherton PM (2010) Soy protein reduces serum cholesterol by both intrinsic and food displacement mechanisms. J Nutr 140:2302S–2311S. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.110.124958 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kandler O, Weiss N (1998) The genus Lactobacillus. In: Sneath PHA, Mair NS, Sharpe ME, Holt JG (eds) Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology. Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore, pp 1208–1234Google Scholar
- Kobyliak N, Abenavoli L, Falalyeyeva T, Mykhalchyshyn G, Boccuto L, Kononenko L, Kyriienko D, Komisarenko I, Dynnyk O (2018) Beneficial effects of probiotic combination with omega-3 fatty acids in NAFLD: a randomized clinical study. Minerva Med. https://doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4806.18.05845-7
- Le B, Yang SH (2018) Identification of a novel potential probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum FB003 isolated from salted-fermented shrimp and its effect on cholesterol absorption by regulation of NPC1L1 and PPARα. Probiotics Antimicro Prot, pp 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12602-018-9469-9
- Luxananil P, Promchai R, Wanasen S, Kamdee S, Thepkasikul P, Plengvidhya V, Visessanguan W, Valyasevi R (2009) Monitoring Lactobacillus plantarum BCC 9546 starter culture during fermentation of Nham, a traditional Thai pork sausage. Int J Food Microbiol 129:312–315. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2008.12.011 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Park S, Kang J, Choi S, Park H, Hwang E, Kang Y, Kim A, Holzapfel W, Ji Y (2018) Cholesterol-lowering effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus BFE5264 and its influence on the gut microbiome and propionate level in a murine model. PLoS One 13(8):e0203150. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203150 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Rosengren A, Hagman M, Wedel H, Wilhelmsen L (1997) Serum cholesterol and long-term prognosis in middle-aged men with myocardial infarction and angina pectoris - a 16-year follow-up of the primary prevention study in Goteborg, Sweden. Eur Heart J 18:754–761. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.eurheartj.a015340 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wang J, Zhang H, Chen X, Chen Y, Menghebilige BQ (2012) Selection of potential probiotic lactobacilli for cholesterol-lowering properties and their effect on cholesterol metabolism in rats fed a high-lipid diet. J Dairy Sci 95:1645–1654. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2011-4768 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar