Degradation of chlorotoluenes and chlorobenzenes by the dual-species biofilm of Comamonas testosteroni strain KT5 and Bacillus subtilis strain DKT
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The cooperation of Bacillus subtilis strain DKT and Comamonas testosteroni KT5 was investigated for biofilm development and toluenes and chlorobenzenes degradation. Bacillus subtilis strain DKT and C. testosteroni KT5 were co-cultured in liquid media with toluenes and chlorobenzenes to determine the degradation of these substrates and formation of dual-species biofilm used for the degradation process. Bacillus subtilis strain DKT utilized benzene, mono- and dichlorinated benzenes as carbon and energy sources. The catabolism of chlorobenzenes was via hydroxylation, in which chlorine atoms were replaced by hydroxyl groups to form catechol, followed by ring fission via the ortho-cleavage pathway. The investigation of the dual-species biofilm composed of B. subtilis DKT and C. testosteroni KT5 (a toluene and chlorotoluene-degrading isolate with low biofilm formation) showed that B. subtilis DKT synergistically promoted C. testosteroni KT5 to develop biofilm. The bacterial growth in dual-species biofilm overcame the inhibitory effects caused by monochlorobenzene and 2-chlorotoluene. Moreover, the dual-species biofilm showed effective degradability toward the mixture of these substrates. This study provides knowledge about the commensal relationships in a dual-culture biofilm for designing multispecies biofilms applied for the biodegradation of toxic organic substrates that cannot be metabolized by single-organism biofilms.
KeywordsBacillus subtilis DKT Chlorobenzenes Ortho-cleavage pathway Comamonas testosteroni KT5 Dual-species biofilm Biodegradation
This work was supported by Dong Thap University for the research group of environmental science. The authors are very thankful for all the support provided to do this research.
This research was funded by the Dong Thap University and authors’ own families.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
Research involving human participants and/or animals
This article does not involve human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
All individual participants in the study have obtained the informed consent.
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