This study includes development, characterization, and optimization of herbal ethosomal formulation. The aim of the present study is to develop drug loaded ethosomes capped with Azadirachta indica (neem) which, was further incorporated in Carbopol 934 K thereby, resulting in the formation of ethosomal gel. The formulation is aimed to express effective treatment against fungal infection. The build was formulated using drug (Luliconazole), soyalecithin, ethanolic neem extract and propylene glycol. In total nine ethosomal, formulations of distinct concentrations of ingredients were processed, to determine out the optimized formulation among the all. Further the prepared drug loaded ethosomes were subjected to various evaluation parameters like particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index (PDI) and % entrapment efficiency. For the evaluation of its surface morphology, transmission electron microscopy was executed whereas, atomic force microscopy was carried out which contributes in detail and depth information of surface morphology. For the analysis of thermal behavior Thermal gravimetric analysis graph was obtained for luliconazole, soyalecithin, neem extract, physical mixture and optimized formulation (LF5). Attenuated total internal reflection Fourier transforms infra-red spectroscopy was performed for luliconazole, soyalecithin, neem extract, physical mixture, and optimized formulation (LF5) to examine the interaction between the drug and the excipients. Viscosity, pH, spreadability and extrudability of the ethosomal gel were calculated to determine the suitability of the formulation for topical application. In vitro drug permeation study and antifungal activity was executed out with the aid of Wistar albino rat skin model and tube dilution assay respectively. The complete study wrap up, that this herbal ethosomal approach provides advanced sustained and targeted delivery of luliconazole. On analyzing the results, ethosomal formulation LF5 was found to be optimized one, due to its optimum concentration of soyalecithin (300 mg) and ethanol (35%). Hence it has maximum entrapment efficiency of 86.56 ± 0.74%. Optimum vesicle size, zeta potential, and PDI were found to be 155.30 ± 1.2 nm, − 42.20 ± 0.3 mV, and 0.186 ± 0.07 respectively. In vitro drug permeation study expresses release of 83.45 ± 2.51 in 24 h whereas; the in vivo activity proved that LF5 is more active and effective against Candida parapsilosis in comparison to Aspergillus niger. In the end, it was estimated that ethosomal suspension and lyophilized ethosomal suspension was utmost stable at 4 °C/60 ± 5 RH. The complete study clearly indicates that the buildup of ethosomal formulation with luliconazole and neem extract show synergistic effect thereby, expressing excellent result against the treatment of fungal infection.
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The author would like to give vote of thanks to Department of Pharmacy, Physics & Chemistry, Banasthali Vidyapith, Rajasthan, India for providing equipment and other required facilities for evaluation of samples.
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Authors declare no conflict of interest.
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Dave, V., Bhardwaj, N., Gupta, N. et al. Herbal ethosomal gel containing luliconazole for productive relevance in the field of biomedicine. 3 Biotech 10, 97 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13205-020-2083-z
- Transdermal delivery