Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

A new style of fermented tofu by Lactobacillus casei combined with salt coagulant

  • 12 Accesses


This research provided a new way to improve the quality of tofu using lactic acid bacteria combined with salt coagulants. In this study, the effect of Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) combined with salt coagulants (MgCl2, MgSO4, CaCl2, CaSO4) on the yield, water-holding capacity (WHC), texture, sensory factors, microstructure and flavour were analysed to evaluate the quality characteristics of fermented tofu. The results showed that the yield of tofu was significantly increased by the fermentation of L. casei (24.75–31.26%). There was no significant difference in the WHC of the tofu, and the value range of WHC was 77.32–80.52%. Fermentation increased the hardness of the tofu and made the tofu structure uniform. In L. casei + MgSO4 tofu, 10 flavour compounds were detected, and the relative content (54.29%) of the four main flavour compounds was highest. L. casei + MgSO4 had the highest sensory value (23.26). The fermentation of L. casei combined with salt coagulants significantly improved the quality characteristics of tofu.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4



Water-holding capacity

L. casei :

Lactobacillus casei

L. plantarum :

Lactobacillus plantarum


Lactic acid bacteria


  1. Blagden TD, Gilliland SE (2005) Reduction of levels of volatile components associated with the “beany” flavor in soymilk by lactobacilli and streptococci. J Food Sci 70(3):M186–M189

  2. Cao FH, Li XJ, Luo SZ, Mu DD, Zhong XY, Jiang ST, Zheng Z, Zhao YY (2017) Effects of organic acid coagulants on the physical properties of and chemical interactions in tofu. LWT Food Sci Technol 85:58–65

  3. Dan T, Jin R, Ren W, Li T, Chen H, Sun T (2018) Characteristics of milk fermented by Streptococcus thermophilus mga45-4 and the profiles of associated volatile compounds during fermentation and storage. Molecules 23(4):878

  4. Donkor ON, Henriksson A, Vasiljevic T, Shah NP (2007) Rheological properties and sensory characteristics of set-type soy yogurt. J Agric Food Chem 55(24):9868–9876

  5. Fung WY, Woo YP, Liong MT (2008) Optimization of growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus FTCC 0291 and evaluation of growth characteristics in soy whey medium: a response surface methodology approach. J Agric Food Chem 56(17):7910–7918

  6. Grygorczyk A, Corredig M (2013) Acid induced gelation of soymilk, comparison between gels prepared with lactic acid bacteria and glucono-δ-lactone. Food Chem 141(3):1716–1721

  7. He FJ, Chen JQ (2013) Consumption of soybean, soy foods, soy isoflavones and breast cancer incidence: differences between Chinese women and women in western countries and possible mechanisms. Food Sci Hum Wellness 2(3–4):146–161

  8. Kao FJ, Su NW, Lee MH (2003) Effect of calcium sulfate concentration in soymilk on the microstructure of firm tofu and the protein constitutions in tofu whey. J Agric Food Chem 51(21):6211–6216

  9. Lee K-Y, Rahman MS, Kim A-N, Gul K, Kang S-W, Chun J, Kerr WL, Choi S-G (2019) Quality characteristics and storage stability of low-fat tofu prepared with defatted soy flours treated by supercritical-CO2 and hexane. LWT 100:237–243. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2018.10.073

  10. Li H, Yan L, Wang J, Zhang Q, Zhou Q, Sun T, Chen W, Zhang H (2012) Fermentation characteristics of six probiotic strains in soymilk. Ann Microbiol 62(4):1473–1483

  11. Li J, Cheng Y, Tatsumi E, Saito M, Yin L (2014) The use of w/o/w controlled-release coagulants to improve the quality of bittern-solidified tofu. Food Hydrocolloids 35:627–635

  12. Li C, Rui X, Zhang Y, Cai F, Chen X, Jiang M (2017) Production of tofu by lactic acid bacteria isolated from naturally fermented soy whey and evaluation of its quality. LWT Food Sci Technol 82:227–234

  13. Maki K, Tomoyo S, Mitsuru F (2018) Metabolite profile of lactic acid-fermented soymilk. Food Nutr Sci 9:1327–1340

  14. O’Toole DK (2016) Soybean: soymilk, tofu, and okara. In: Wrigley CW, Corke H, Seetharaman K, Faubion J (eds) Encyclopedia of food grains, vol 3. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 134–143

  15. Poudyal RL, Kobayashi R, Suzuki T, Watanabe M (2019) Effect of different freezing and storage condition on the physical properties of protein coagulum (firm tofu). Int J Refrig 107:11–19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2019.07.022

  16. Prabhakaran MP, Perera CO, Valiyaveettil S (2006) Effect of different coagulants on the isoflavone levels and physical properties of prepared firm tofu. Food Chem 99:492–499

  17. Riciputi Y, Serrazanetti DI, Verardo V, Vannini L, Caboni MF, Lanciotti R (2016) Effect of fermentation on the content of bioactive compounds in tofu-type products. J Funct Foods 27:131–139

  18. Saio K (1979) Tofu-relationships between texture and fine structure. Cereal Foods World 24:342–354

  19. Serrazanetti DI, Ndagijimana M, Miserocchi C, Perillo L, Guerzoni ME (2013) Fermented tofu: enhancement of keeping quality and sensorial properties. Food Control 34(2):336–346

  20. Shi X, Li J, Wang S, Zhang L (2015) Flavor characteristic analysis of soymilk prepared by different soybean cultivars and establishment of evaluation method of soybean cultivars suitable for soymilk processing. Food Chem 185:422–429

  21. Vannini L, Patrignani F, Iucci L, Ndagijimana M, Vallicelli M, Lanciotti R, Guerzoni ME (2008) Effect of a pre-treatment of milk with high pressure homogenization on yield as well as on microbiological, lipolytic and proteolytic patterns of “pecorino” cheese. Int J Food Microbiol 128(2):329–335

  22. Wang JM, Lin QQ, Wang YY, Chen X (2013) Research on soybean curd coagulated by lactic acid bacteria. Springerplus 2(1):250

  23. Wang X, He Z, Zeng M, Qin F, Adhikari B, Chen J (2017) Effects of the size and content of protein aggregates on the rheological and structural properties of soy protein isolate emulsion gels induced by CaSO4. Food Chem 221:130–138

  24. Wang X, Luo K, Liu S, Adhikari B, Chen J (2019) Improvement of gelation properties of soy protein isolate emulsion induced by calcium cooperated with magnesium. J Food Eng 244:32–39

  25. Wilkens WF, Lin FM (1970) Gas chromatographic and mass spectral analyses of soybean milk volatiles. J Agric Food Chem 18:333–336

  26. Wu M, Xiong YL, Chen J, Tang X, Zhou G (2009) Rheological and microstructural properties of porcine myofibrillar protein–lipid emulsion composite gels. J Food Sci 74(4):E207–E217

  27. Wu W, Hua YF, Lin QL (2014) Effect of oxidative modification on thermal aggregation and gel properties of soy protein by malondialdehyde. J Food Sci Technol 51(3):485–493

  28. Yasin UA, Horo JT, Gebre BA (2019) Physicochemical and sensory properties of tofu prepared from eight popular soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] varieties in Ethiopia. Sci Afr. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sciaf.2019.e00179

  29. Zhang Q, Wang C, Li B, Li L, Lin D, Chen H, Liu Y, Li S, Qin W, Liu J, Liu W, Yang W (2016) Research progress in tofu processing: from raw materials to processing conditions. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 58(9):1448–1467

  30. Zhang W, Liu X, Yang Z, Song H, Zhang Y, Jin Y (2018) Effect of soaking and temperature process on the volatile compounds in soymilk made by soymilk maker. J Food Sci Technol 55(4):1591–1598

  31. Zhu Q, Wu F, Saito M, Tatsumi E, Yin L (2016) Effect of magnesium salt concentration in water-in-oil emulsions on the physical properties and microstructure of tofu. Food Chem 201:197–204

Download references


This study was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China, (Nos. 2018YFD0400500, 2018YFD0400503) and the “Academic backbone” Project of Northeast Agricultural University (No. 18XG28).

Author information

Correspondence to Liang Li.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no competing financial interest.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Wang, Y., Yang, X. & Li, L. A new style of fermented tofu by Lactobacillus casei combined with salt coagulant. 3 Biotech 10, 81 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13205-019-2040-x

Download citation


  • Tofu
  • Fermented
  • Lactobacillus casei
  • Coagulation
  • Quality