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Evaluation of pre-treatment methods for Lantana camara stem for enhanced enzymatic saccharification


This study evaluates certain pre-treatment methods for Lantana camara stem for efficient conversion to fermentable sugars. The composition analysis of L. camara stem showed 66.8% (w/w) holocellulose, 34.9% (w/w) cellulose and 17% (w/w) hemicellulose. Comparative analysis of various chemical, physical or physico-chemical pre-treatments on L. camara stem was performed. Of all pretreatment methods used, pre-treatment with 1% (v/v) H2SO4 assisted autoclaving gave maximum total reducing sugar yield 132.7 mg/g (13.2 g/L) of raw biomass in pretreated hydrolysate. Major contribution to total reducing sugar was from hemicellulosic fraction, because total pentose sugar yield was 119.4 mg/g of raw biomass whereas, glucose released was only 10 mg/g of untreated biomass. The enzymatic saccharification of pre-treated L. camara stem by 1% (v/v) H2SO4 assisted autoclaving was performed with partially purified carboxymethylcellulase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SS35. Enzymatic saccharification at 30 °C for 48 h gave total reducing sugar yield, 63.3 mg/g of pre-treated biomass in the hydrolysate, while untreated biomass gave 43.3 mg/g of untreated biomass. The total sugar yield i.e. the sum of pre-treated biomass hydrolysate total reducing sugar (132.7 mg/g of raw biomass) and enzymatic hydrolysate total reducing sugar (63.3 mg/g of pre-treated biomass) was 196.0 mg/g of raw biomass, indicating the effectiveness of pre-treatment method. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction analyses displayed enhanced porosity, removal of non-cellulosic sugars and increased cellulose crystallinity, respectively, in pre-treated L. camara stem, showing the effectiveness of acid assisted autoclaving pre-treatment.

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Lantana camara Stem


Total reducing sugars


Carboxy methyl cellulose


Field emission scanning electron microscopy


Fourier transform infrared


X-ray diffraction


Crystallinity index


Total sugar yield (sum of pre-treated hydrolysate TRS and enzymatic hydrolysate TRS)


Enzymatic hydrolysis






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The research work was supported by Centre for Bioenergy DBT-Pan-IIT Grant (BT/EB/PAN-IIT 2012) by the Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science and Technology, New Delhi, India. The authors acknowledge the use of FTIR spectrophotometer procured through the Indo-Finnish project Grant (BT/IN/Finland/08/AG/2011) from Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India. The authors also acknowledge the Central Instrument Facility (CIF) at Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Guwahati, for the provision of FESEM facilities. The authors also thankful to Department of Physics for providing XRD and Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, IIT Guwahati for HPLC facility.

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AG conceived the idea and designed the objectives. AK and SS together performed the pretreatment, XRD, FESEM and HPLC studies and data analysis, VR performed the FTIR and HPLC studies. AG, SS and AK wrote the paper.

Correspondence to Arun Goyal.

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Kumar, A., Singh, S., Rajulapati, V. et al. Evaluation of pre-treatment methods for Lantana camara stem for enhanced enzymatic saccharification. 3 Biotech 10, 37 (2020).

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  • Lantana camara stem
  • Pre-treatment
  • Carboxymethylcellulase
  • Enzymatic saccharification