Production of humic acids by solid-state fermentation of Trichoderma reesei in raw oil palm empty fruit bunch fibers
- 59 Downloads
Humic acids (HA) are organic macromolecules of high structural complexity and are primarily obtained from non-renewable carbon sources such as peat and coal. HA is widely used in agriculture but is known to have therapeutic properties, which are still poorly explored. Previous studies have shown the potential of biotechnological processes in the production of HA in submerged fermentation (SF) and solid-state fermentation (SSF) using pre-treated fibers of oil palm of empty fruit bunch (EFB) for the cultivation of Trichoderma strains. EFB is an agro-industrial residue that is readily available at a low cost. The present study aimed to study the production of HA by Trichoderma reesei in the SSF of raw fibers of EFBs from two different palm oil producers. Profiles of HA production, cellular protein, pH, glucose, moisture, and oxygen transfer were obtained during SSF by EFB with and without lipids, as well as, images by electron microscopy of fibers. Results showed efficient HA production in the raw fibers of the EFBs. HA production followed the cellular protein (6 g HA per 100 g of fibers) evolution of the fermentations in the absence of lipids, while the composition of lipids greatly affected its production. The best HA production (350 mg HA per 100 g of fibers) was obtained from EFB that was richer in lignocellulosics and the residual lipids were similar to the fractions of palm and kernel oils, while EFB with lower lignocellulosic presented a production 110 mg HA per 100 g of fibers.
KeywordsHumic acids Empty fruit bunch Agroindustrial residue Trichoderma reesei Solid-state fermentation
The authors are grateful for the support given by School of Chemical Engineering (FEQ/UNICAMP), Agropalma and cooperative of small palm oil producing industries from Muniz Ferreira by supplying of the EFB. This work was supported by the scholarship of the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) [Grant number 830535/1999-3].
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors have no financial conflicts of interest to declare.
- AACCI American Association of Cereal Chemists International (2010) Approved methods, 11th edn. AACC International, St PaulGoogle Scholar
- Abdul Khalil HPS, Siti Alwani M, Mohd Omar AK (2006) Chemical composition, anatomy, lignin distribution, and cell wall structure of malaysian plant waste fibers. BioRes 1(2):220–232Google Scholar
- AOAC (2016) Official methods of analysis of AOAC International, 20th edn. AOAC International, RockvilleGoogle Scholar
- AOCS (2009) Official methods and recommended practices of the American Oil Chemist’s Society, 6th edn. AOCS Press, ChampaignGoogle Scholar
- Bastos RG, Motta FL, Santana MHA (2016) Oxygen transfer in the solid-state cultivation of D. monoceras on polyurethane foam as an inert support. Braz J Chem Eng 33:793–799. https://doi.org/10.1590/0104-6632.20160334s20150262 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Borsari F (2013) Experiências de campo demonstram os benefícios para a produtividade do uso de ácidos húmicos na agricultura intensiva. Agro DBO 46:44–45. https://issuu.com/eriklm/docs/agro_ed_46/44
- Kredics L, Antal Z, Manczinger L, Szekeres A, Kevei F, Nagy E (2003) Influence of environmental parameters on Trichoderma strains with biocontrol potential. Food Technol Biotechnol 41:37–42 (ISSN 1330-9862) Google Scholar
- Kupski L (2012) Produção de celulase a partir da indústria arrozeira empregando Rhizopus oryzae e Trichoderma reesei. Dissertação apresentada ao programa de Engenharia de Alimentos. http://www.ppgalimentos.furg.br/images/stories/Dissertacoes/2012/larine%20kupisk-%20produo%20de%20celulases%20a%20partir%20de%20resduo%20da%20indstria%20arrozeira%20empregando%20rhizopus%20oryzae%20e%20trichoderma%20reesei%20.pdf. Accessed 3 Sept 2017
- Rozman HD, Mohd Ishak ZA, Ishiaku US (2005) In: Mohanty A, Misra M, Drzal LT (eds) Oil palm fiber–thermoplastic composites. Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton, p 407Google Scholar
- Senesi N, Loffredo E (2001) Soil humic substances. In: Hofrichter M, Steinbuchel A (eds) Biopolymers Lignin, humic substances and coal. Wiley, Weineim, pp 247–299Google Scholar
- Volpi MPC, Santos VS, Badan APR, Santana MHA, Bastos RG (2018) The role of lignocellulosic composition and residual lipids in empty fruit bunches on the production of humic acids in submerged fermentations. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 3:957–964. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12010-018-2850-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar