3 Biotech

, 9:382 | Cite as

The impact of active dry yeasts in commercial wineries from the Denomination of Origen “Vinos de Madrid”, Spain

  • M. Gil-Díaz
  • E. Valero
  • J. M. Cabellos
  • M. García
  • T. ArroyoEmail author
Original Article


This paper has studied the success of implantation for 16 commercial active dry yeasts (ADYs) during industrial fermentation (30) and the impact of these yeasts during spontaneous fermentations (19) in 10 wineries from the Denomination of Origin “Vinos de Madrid” over two consecutive years. Yeasts strains were identified by molecular techniques, pulsed field electrophoresis and microsatellite analysis. According to these techniques, all the ADYs were different with the exceptions of two strains, L2056 and Rh, which showed the same karyotype and loci size. The results showed that inoculating fermentations with ADYs did not ensure their dominance throughout the fermentation; the implantation level of ADYs was above 80% in only 9 of the 30 commercial fermentations studied; while in 16 fermentations, the dominance of the inoculated ADYs was below 50%. The type of vinification with the best implantation results overall were those associated with red wine fermentations. ADYs affected spontaneous fermentations, although their impact was observed to decrease in the second year of the study. Therefore, specific adaptation studies are necessary before using commercial yeasts during the fermentation process. At the same time, a study was carried out on the frequency of commercial strains in IMIDRA’s yeast collection, made up of strains isolated from spontaneous fermentations of the different areas and cellars since the beginning of the Denomination of Origin “Vinos de Madrid” in 1990. Six different ADYs were found with a frequency of less than 5%.


Incidence/dominance Commercial active dry yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae Spontaneous fermentation Karyotypes Microsatellite 



This work was supported by the INIA projects “Tipificación y valoración de la calidad de mostos y vinos de la D.O. Vinos de Madrid”, Entidad financiadora: I.N.I.A. SC99-007 and RM-2010-0009-03 Mejora y ampliación de una colección de levaduras de interés biotecnológico con levaduras de sustratos diferentes. We want to thank to The Wine Standards Board from the Denomination of Origin “Vinos de Madrid” and the wineries which kindly participated in this study.

Author contributions

T. Arroyo has directed the research. She has proposed and analysed the experiments, and has revised the final version of the manuscript. M. Gil-Díaz has realized the experiments, data treatment and written the paper. E. Valero and J.M. Cabellos have contributed to the development of the experiments and to the analysis of data. M. García has participated in the molecular identification of yeasts. All the authors have discussed the results and have approved the final version of this manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there was no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.

Supplementary material

13205_2019_1913_MOESM1_ESM.doc (151 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 151 kb)


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Copyright information

© King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de AgroalimentaciónInstituto Madrileño de Investigación y Desarrollo Rural Agrario y Alimentario (IMIDRA)MadridSpain
  2. 2.Departamento de Biología Molecular e Ingeniería BioquímicaUniversidad Pablo de OlavideSevillaSpain

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