3 Biotech

, 9:360 | Cite as

A novel self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system for curcumin used in the treatment of wound healing and inflammation

  • Niyaz AhmadEmail author
  • Rizwan Ahmad
  • Ali Al-Qudaihi
  • Salman Edrees Alaseel
  • Ibrahim Zuhair Fita
  • Mohammed Saifuddin Khalid
  • Faheem Hyder Pottoo
  • Srinivasa Rao Bolla
Original Article


The main objective of this study was to develop and evaluate self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) of curcumin (Cur) to enhance their solubility as well as improve skin permeation; and evaluate wound healing potential of Cur via SNEDDS in comparison with standards pure eucalyptus oil-SNEDDS (Euc-SNEDDS), pure curcumin suspension (Cur-S), and standard fusidic acid followed by their anti-inflammatory action. Curcumin-loaded different SNEDDS formulations were formulated through aqueous phase titration method and the zones of SNEDDS were recognized by the construction of phase diagrams. Eucalyptus oil, Tween 80 (surfactant), and Transcutol HP (co-surfactant) were selected on the basis of their solubility and highest nanoemulsion region. Characterization of thermodynamic stability for Cur-loaded SNEDDS was evaluated by its globule size, zeta potential, polydispersity index, viscosity, % transmittance, refractive index, and surface morphology. Cur-SNEDDS (Cur-SN4) was optimized and selected on the basis of their excellent physicochemical parameters for in vivo activity. The particle size (59.56 ± 0.94 nm), % transmittance (99.08 ± 0.07%), and PDI (0.207 ± 0.011 were observed for optimized Cur-SNEDDS. TEM and SEM showed their smooth and spherical shape of the morphological characterization with zeta potential (− 21.41 ± 0.89), refractive index (1.341 ± 0.06), and viscosity (11.64 ± 1.26 cp) for optimized Cur-SNEDDS. Finally, optimized Cur-SNEDDS was used to enhance skin permeation with improvement in the solubility of Cur. However, optimized Cur-SNEDDS showed significant wound healing activity as compared with pure eucalyptus oil and Cur-S on topical application. Optimized Cur-SNEDDS showed healing of wound as compared to standard fusidic acid. Optimized Cur-SNEDDS exhibited no signs of inflammatory cells on the histopathological studies of treated rats which were recommended the safety and non-toxicity of Cur-SNEDDS. Newly developed Cur-SNEDDS could be successfully used to enhance Cur-solubility and skin permeation, as well as suggested a potential role of Cur-SNEDDS for better improvement of wound healing activity followed by anti-inflammatory action of Cur via topical application.


Curcumin SNEDDS Enhancement of solubility Release and skin permeation study Wound healing with anti-inflammatory action Transdermal delivery 



The authors are very thankful to Prof. (Dr.) Mastour Safar Al-Ghamdi for help in the evaluations of wound healing.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

No conflict of interests exists among authors. No grants were received.


  1. Ahmad N, Umar S, Ashafaq M, Akhtar M, Iqbal Z, Samim M, Ahmad FJ (2013) A comparative study of PNIPAM nanoparticles of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin and their effects on oxidative stress markers in experimental stroke. Protoplasma 250(6):1327–1338. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmad N, Ahmad R, Alam MA, Samim M, Iqbal Z, Ahmad FJ (2016a) Quantification and evaluation of thymoquinone loaded mucoadhesive nanoemulsion for treatment of cerebral ischemia. Int J Biol Macromol 88:320–332. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmad N, Ahmad I, Umar S, Iqbal Z, Samim M, Ahmad FJ (2016b) PNIPAM nanoparticles for targeted and enhanced nose-to-brain delivery of curcuminoids: UPLC/ESI-Q-ToF-MS/MS-based pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic evaluation in cerebral ischemia model. Drug Deliv 23(7):2095–2114. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahmad N, Ahmad R, Naqvi AA, Alam MA, Abdur Rub R, Ahmad FJ (2017a) Enhancement of quercetin oral bioavailability by self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system and their quantification through ultra high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry in cerebral ischemia. Drug Res (Stuttg) 67(10):564–575. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ahmad N, Ahmad R, Naqvi AA, Alam MA, Ashafaq M, Iqbal Z, Ahmad FJ (2017b) Isolation, characterization, and quantification of curcuminoids and their comparative effects in cerebral ischemia. J Liq Chromatogr Relat Technol 40(3):133–146. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ahmad N, Ahmad R, Alam MA, Ahmad FJ, Amir M (2018a) Impact of ultrasonication techniques on the preparation of novel Amiloride-nanoemulsion used for intranasal delivery in the treatment of epilepsy. Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 46(sup3):S192–S207. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Ahmad N, Ahmad R, Al-layly A, Al-shawi H, Al-ali A, Amir M, Mostafa A (2018b) Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-based identification and quantification of thymoquinone in Nigella sativa extract from different geographical regions. Pharmacogn Mag 14(57):S471-S48. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ahmad N, Alam MA, Ahmad FJ, Sarafroz M, Ansari K, Sharma S, Amir M (2018c) Ultrasonication techniques used for the preparation of novel Eugenol-Nanoemulsion in the treatment of wounds healings and anti-inflammatory. J Drug Deliv Sci Technol 46:461–473. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ahmad N, Ahmad R, Naqvi AA, Alam MA, Ashafaq M, Abdur Rub R, Ahmad FJ (2018d) Intranasal delivery of quercetin-loaded mucoadhesive nanoemulsion for treatment of cerebral ischaemia. Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 46(4):717–729. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Ahmad N, Ahmad R, Alam MA, Ahmad FJ, Amir M, Pottoo FH, Sarafroz M, Jafar M, Umar K (2019a) Daunorubicin oral bioavailability enhancement by surface coated natural biodegradable macromolecule chitosan based polymeric nanoparticles. Int J Biol Macromol 128:825–838. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Ahmad N, Ahmad FJ, Bedi S, Sharma S, Umar S (2019b) A novel nanoformulation development of eugenol and their treatment in inflammation and periodontitis. Saudi Pharm J. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Alam P, Ansari MJ, Anwer MK, Raish M, Kamal YK, Shakeel F (2017) Wound healing effects of nanoemulsion containing clove essential oil. Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 45(3):591–597. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Alam P, Shakeel F, Anwer MK, Foudah AI, Alqarni MH (2018) Wound healing study of eucalyptus essential oil containing nanoemulsion in rat model. J Oleo Sci 67(8):957–968. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Al-Rohaimi AH (2015) Comparative anti-inflammatory potential of crystalline and amorphous nano curcumin in topical drug delivery. J Oleo Sci 64(1):27–40. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Badran MM, Taha EI, Tayel MM, Al-Suwayeh SA (2014) Ultra-fine self nanoemulsifying drug delivery system for transdermal delivery of meloxicam: dependency on the type of surfactants. J Mol Liq 190:16–22. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bhattacharjee S (2016) DLS and zeta potential—what they are and what they are not? J Control Release 238:311–312. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Boateng J, Catanzano O (2015) Advanced therapeutic dressing for effective wound healing—review. J Pharm Sci 104(11):3653–3680. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cirri M, Maestrini L, Maestrelli F, Mennini N, Mura P, Ghelardini C, Di Cesare Mannelli L (2018) Design, characterization and in vivo evaluation of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) as a new drug delivery system for hydrochlorothiazide oral administration in pediatric therapy. Drug Deliv 25(1):1910–1921. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. de Cássia da Silveira R, Andrade LN, de Sousa DP (2013) A Review on anti-inflammatory activity of monoterpenes. Molecules 18(1):1227–1254. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. de Fatima A, Modolo LV, Sanches AC, Porto RR (2008) Wound healing agents: the role of natural and non-natural products in drug development. Mini Rev Med Chem 8:879–888. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. El Maghraby GM (2008) Transdermal delivery of hydrocortisone from eucalyptus oil microemulsion: effects of cosurfactants. Int J Pharm 355(1–2):285–292. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Elnaggar Yosra SR, El-Massik Magda A, Abdallah Ossama Y (2011) Sildenafil citrate nanoemulsion vs. self-nanoemulsifying delivery systems: rational development and transdermal permeation. Int J Nanotechnol 8(8/9):749–763. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. El-Say KM, Ahmed TA, Badr-Eldin SM, Fahmy U, Aldawsari H, Ahmed OAA (2015) Enhanced permeation parameters of optimized nanostructured simvastatin transdermal films: ex vivo and in vivo evaluation. Pharm Dev Technol 20(8):919–926. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Fitzmaurice SD, Sivamani RK, Isseroff RR (2011) Antioxidant therapies for wound healing: a clinical guide to currently commercially available products. Skin Pharmacol Physiol 24(3):113–126. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Gebremeskel L, Bhoumik D, Sibhat GG, Tuem KB (2018) In vivo wound healing and anti-inflammatory activities of leaf latex of aloe megalacantha baker (Xanthorrhoeaceae). Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2018:5037912. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Ghosh V, Mukherjee A, Chandrasekaran N (2013) Ultrasonic emulsification of food-grade nanoemulsion formulation and evaluation of its bactericidal activity. Ultrason Sonochem 20(1):338–344. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Gong C, Wu Q, Wang Y, Zhang D, Luo F, Zhao X, Wei Y, Qian Z (2013) A biodegradable hydrogel system containing curcumin encapsulated in micelles for cutaneous wound healing. Biomaterials 34(27):6377–6387. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Gopinath D, Ahmed MR, Gomathi K, Chitra K, Sehgal PK, Jayakumar R (2004) Dermal wound healing processes with curcumin incorporated collagen films. Biomaterials 25(10):1911–1917. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Gould L, Abadir P, Brem H et al (2015) Chronic wound repair and healing in older adults: current status and future research. J Am Geriatr Soc 63(3):427–438. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Grieb G, Steffens G, Pallua N, Bernhagen J, Bucala R (2011) Circulating fibrocytes—biology and mechanisms in wound healing and scar formation. Int Rev Cell Mol Biol 291:1–19. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Hsiao CY, Tsai TH, Chak KF (2012) The molecular basis of wound healing processes induced by lithospermi radix: a proteomics and biochemical analysis. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012:508972. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Ibrahim N, Wong SK, Mohamed IN, Mohamed N, Chin KY, Ima-Nirwana S, Shuid AN (2018) Wound healing properties of selected natural products. Int J Environ Res Public Health. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Inugala S, Eedara BB, Sunkavalli S, Dhurke R, Kandadi P, Jukanti R, Bandari S (2015) Solid self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (S-SNEDDS) of darunavir for improved dissolution and oral bioavailability: in vitro and in vivo evaluation. Eur J Pharm Sci 74:1–10. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Jain S, Kambam S, Thanki K, Jain AK (2015) Cyclosporine A loaded self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS): implication of a functional excipient based co-encapsulation strategy on oral bioavailability and nephrotoxicity. RSC Adv 5:49633–49642. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jaiswal M, Dudhe R, Sharma PK (2015) Nanoemulsion: an advanced mode of drug delivery system. 3 Biotech 5:123–127. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Juergens UR, Dethlefsen U, Steinkamp G, Gillissen A, Repges R, Vetter H (2003) Anti-inflammatory activity of 1.8-cineol (eucalyptol) in bronchial asthma: A double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Respir Med 97(3):250-256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Khan AW, Kotta S, Ansari SH, Sharma RK, Ali J (2015) Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) of the poorly water-soluble grapefruit flavonoid Naringenin: design, characterization, in vitro and in vivo evaluation. Drug Deliv 22(4):552–561. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Kumar B, Vijayakumar M, Govindarajan R, Pushpangadan P (2007) Ethnopharmacological approaches to wound healing—exploring medicinal plants of India. J Ethnopharmacol 114(2):103–113. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Kurahashi T, Fujii J (2015) Roles of Antioxidative Enzymes in Wound Healing. J Dev Biol 3(2):57–70. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lazarus GS, Cooper DM, Knighton DR, Percoraro RE, Rodeheaver G, Robson MC (1994) Definitions and guidelines for assessment of wounds and evaluation of healing. Wound Repair Regen 2(3):165–170. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. McClements DJ, Xiao H (2012) Potential biological fate of ingested nanoemulsions: influence of particle characteristics. Food Funct 3(3):202–220. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Moghaddam AA, Ahad A, Aqil M, Ahmad FJ, Sultana Y, Ali A (2018) Ibuprofen loaded nano-ethanolic liposomes carbopol gel system: in vitro characterization and anti-inflammatory efficacy assessment in Wistar rats. J Polym Eng 38(3):291–298. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Monika Garg R, Sardana S (2018) Bioavalibility enhancement of Resveratrol using self nanoemulsifying drug delivery system developed applying central composite design. Int J Pharm Sci Res 9(8):3334–3346. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Nagori BP, Solanki R (2011) Role of medicinal plants in wound healing. Res J Med Plant 5(4):392–405. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Nasr AM, Gardouh AR, Ghonaim HM, Ghorab MM (2016a) Design, formulation and in vitro characterization of Irbesartan solid self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (S-SNEDDS) prepared using spray drying technique. J Chem Pharm Res 8(2):159–183Google Scholar
  46. Nasr A, Gardouh A, Ghorab M (2016b) Novel Solid Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System (S-SNEDDS) for Oral Delivery of Olmesartan Medoxomil: design, formulation, pharmacokinetic and bioavailability evaluation. Pharmaceutics 8(3):E20. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Nazari-Vanani R, Moezi L, Heli H (2017) In vivo evaluation of a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system for curcumin. Biomed Pharmacother 88:715–720. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Nipun TS, Islam SMA (2014) SEDDS of gliclazide: preparation and characterization by in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo techniques. Saudi Pharm J 22(4):343–348. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Odei-Addo F, Shegokar R, Müller RH, Levendal RA, Frost C (2017) Nanoformulation of Leonotis leonurus to improve its bioavailability as a potential antidiabetic drug. 3 Biotech 7(5):344. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. Parveen R, Baboota S, Ali J, Ahuja A, Vasudev SS, Ahmad S (2011) Oil based nanocarrier for improved oral delivery of silymarin: in vitro and in vivo studies. Int J Pharm 413(1–2):245–253. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Pathan IB, Setty CM (2011) Enhancement of transdermal delivery of tamoxifen citrate using nanoemulsion vehicle. Int J Pharm Tech Res 3(1):287–297Google Scholar
  52. Pathan IB, Munde SJ, Shelke S, Ambekar W, Setty CM (2019) Curcumin loaded fish scale collagen–HPMC nanogel for wound healing application: ex-vivo and In-vivo evaluation. Int J Polym Mater 68(4):165–174. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Porter CJ, Trevaskis NL, Charman WN (2007) Lipids and lipid-based formulations: optimizing the oral delivery of lipophilic drugs. Nat Rev Drug Discov 6(3):231–248. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Pouton CW, Porter CJ (2008) Formulation of lipid-based delivery systems for oral administration: materials, methods and strategies. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 60(6):625–637. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Pratiwi L, Fudholi A, Martien R, Pramono S (2017) Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (Snedds) for topical delivery of mangosteen peels (Garcinia Mangostana L.): formulation design and in vitro studies. J Young Pharm 9(3):341–346. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Saporito F, Sandri G, Bonferoni MC, Rossi S, Boselli C, Icaro Cornaglia A, Mannucci B, Grisoli P, Vigani B, Ferrari F (2017) Essential oil-loaded lipid nanoparticles for wound healing. Int J Nanomedicine 13:175–186. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Shakeel F, Shazly GA, Raish M, Ahmad A, Kalam MA, Ali N, Ansari MA, Elosaily GM (2015) Biological investigation of supersaturated self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system of Piper cubeba essential oil. RSC Adv 5:105206–105217. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Shakeel F, Alam P, Anwer MK, Alanazi SA, Alsarra IA, Alqarni MH (2019) Wound healing evaluation of self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system containing Piper cubeba essential oil. 3 Biotech 9(3):82. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Sharma G, Beg S, Thanki K, Katare OP, Jain S, Kohli K, Singh B (2015) Systematic development of novel cationic self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems of candesartan cilexetil with enhanced biopharmaceutical performance. RSC Adv 5:71500–71513. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sidhu GS, Singh AK, Thaloor D, Banaudha KK, Patnaik GK, Srimal RC, Maheshwari RK (1998) Enhancement of wound healing by curcumin in animals. Wound Repair Regen 6(2):167–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Singh M, Govindarajan R, Nath V, Rawat AKS, Mehrotra S (2006) Antimicrobial, wound healing and antioxidant activity of plagiochasma appendiculatum Lehm. et Lind. J Ethnopharmacol 107(1):67–72. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Singh B, Bandopadhyay S, Kapil R, Singh R, Katare O (2009) Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS): formulation development, characterization, and applications. Crit Rev Ther Drug Carrier Syst 26(5):427–521. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Sood S, Jain K, Gowthamarajan K (2014) Optimization of curcumin nanoemulsion for intranasal delivery using design of experiment and its toxicity assessment. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 113:330–337. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Stejskalova A, Almquist BD (2017) Using biomaterials to rewire the process of wound repair. Biomater Sci 5(8):1421–1434. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. Suntar I, Akkol EK, Keles H, Oktem A, Baser KH, Yesilada E (2011) A novel wound healing ointment: a formulation of Hypericum perforatum oil and sage and oregano essential oils based on traditional Turkish knowledge. J Ethnopharmacol 134(1):89–96. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Suqumar S, Ghosh V, Nirmala MJ, Mukherjee A, Chandrasekaran N (2014) Ultrasonic emulsification of eucalyptus oil nanoemulsion: antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and wound healing activity in Wistar rats. Ultarason Sonochem. 21(3):1044–1049. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Taha EI, Ak-Suwayeh SA, Tayel MM, Badran MM (2015) Fast ultra-fine self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system for improving in vitro gastric dissolution of poor water soluble drug. Acta Pol Pharm 72(1):171–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Thacharodi D, Panduranga Rao K (1994) Transdermal absorption of nifedipine from microemulsions of lipophilic skin penetration enhancers. Int J Pharm 111(3):235–240. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Thiruvengadam M, Rajakumar G, Chung IM (2018) Nanotechnology: current uses and future applications in the food industry. 3 Biotech 8(1):74. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Thomas N, Holm R, Müllertz A, Rades T (2012) In vitro and in vivo performance of novel supersaturated self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (super-SNEDDS). J Control Release 160(1):25–32. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Thomas L, Zakir F, Mirza MA, Anwer MK, Ahmad FJ, Iqbal Z (2017) Development of Curcumin loaded chitosan polymer based nanoemulsion gel: in vitro, ex vivo evaluation and in vivo wound healing studies. Int J Biol Macromol 101:569–579. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Tumen I, Akkol EK, Suntar I, Keles H (2011) Wound repair and anti-inflammatory potential of essential oils from cones of Pinaceae: preclinical experimental research in animal models. J Ethnopharmacol 137(3):1215–1220. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Velnar T, Bailey T, Smrkolj V (2009) The wound healing process: an overview of the cellular and molecular mechanisms. J Int Med Res 37:1528–1542. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Villar AM, Naveros BC, Campmany AC, Trenchs MA, Rocabert CB, Bellowa LH (2012) Design and optimization of self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) for enhanced dissolution of gemfibrozil. Int J Pharm 431(1–2):161–175. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Wan S, Zhang L, Quan Y, Wei K (2018) Resveratrol-loaded PLGA nanoparticles: enhanced stability, solubility and bioactivity of resveratrol for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease therapy. R Soc Open Sci 5(11):181457. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. Winter CA, Risley EA, Nuss GW (1963) Anti-Inflammatory and Antipyretic Activities Of Indomethacin, 1-(p-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methylindole-3-acetic acid. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 141:369–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Yan YD, Kim JA, Kwak MK, Yoo BK, Yong CS, Choi HG (2011) Enhanced oral bioavailability of curcumin via a solid lipid-based self-emulsifying drug delivery system using a spray-drying technique. Biol Pharm Bull 34(8):1179–1186. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Yusufoglu HS, Alqasoumi SI (2011) Anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of herbal gel containing an antioxidant Tamarix aphylla leaf extract. Int J Pharmacol 7(8):829–835. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Niyaz Ahmad
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Rizwan Ahmad
    • 3
  • Ali Al-Qudaihi
    • 1
  • Salman Edrees Alaseel
    • 1
  • Ibrahim Zuhair Fita
    • 1
  • Mohammed Saifuddin Khalid
    • 4
  • Faheem Hyder Pottoo
    • 4
  • Srinivasa Rao Bolla
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Clinical PharmacyImam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal UniversityDammamKingdom of Saudi Arabia
  2. 2.Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Clinical PharmacyImam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal UniversityDammamKingdom of Saudi Arabia
  3. 3.Department of Natural Products and Alternative Medicine, College of Clinical PharmacyImam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal UniversityDammamKingdom of Saudi Arabia
  4. 4.Department of Pharmacology, College of Clinical PharmacyImam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal UniversityDammamKingdom of Saudi Arabia
  5. 5.Department of Anatomy, College of MedicineImam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal UniversityDammamKingdom of Saudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations