Strategy for early callus induction and identification of anti-snake venom triterpenoids from plant extracts and suspension culture of Euphorbia hirta L.
- 33 Downloads
Euphorbia hirta L. from the family of Euphorbiaceae is an annual herb, which grows as a roadside weed in most tropical countries. It is prominently used by the traditional healers in rural India for the treatment of snakebites. However, the mechanisms and the major bioactive compounds behind its inhibition activity are relatively unknown. From our preliminary in silico studies, it was found that a group of pentacyclic triterpenoids from this plant are playing a major role in inhibiting the snake venom proteins. The present study was aimed at standardizing methods for obtaining callus from this medicinal plant at a much faster rate by hormone pretreatment of explants and, thus, by developing suspension cultures to obtain bioactive secondary metabolites in vitro. The results were promising that longer incubation of explants with hormone treatment showed early induction of callus. The major bioactive compounds responsible for the anti-snake venom activity were characterized from natural plant material as well as from suspension cultures, and the efficiency was found to be relatively high. The secondary metabolite analysis from suspension culture and natural plant extracts revealed that a major compound ‘Taraxerol’ and its derivatives was found abundant along with few other triterpenoids. This compound showed high inhibitory activity against pit viper snake venoms from our in silico studies with molecular docking tools. Hence, this study with identification of potential bioactive compounds against snake venom with standardization of In vitro culture methods would help in developing natural alternative medicine for snakebites in near future.
KeywordsEuphorbia hirta Triterpenoids Taraxerol Callus cultures Docking Snake anti-venom
The authors would like to thank the Department of Biosciences and technology, Karunya Institute of Technology and Sciences, Coimbatore for their support, laboratory facilities, and for providing fund from Karunya student projects scheme. No ethical considerations were involved in this project. The authors would like to thank Dr. Jebasingh, Department of Chemistry, KITS for HPLC analysis, Dr. Premnath, Department of Bioinformatics, KITS for compound separation analysis and docking studies, and JSS College of pharmacy, Ooty, for LC–MS analysis.
The authors RAS and RSDP conceived the idea and under the guidance of RSDPR the experiments were performed by RAS. RSDP edited and proof read the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that no potential conflict of interest was intended and declared none.
- Baburaj S, Dhamotharan R, Santhaguru K (1987) Regeneration in leaf callus cultures of E. hirta Linn. Curr Sci 56(4):194–194. http://www.jstor.org/stable/24090380
- Grenand P, Moretti C, Jacquemin H (1987) PharmacopeÂes traditionelles en Guyane. Creoles, Palikur WayaÄpi Editions l’Orstom, ParisGoogle Scholar
- Kumar GP, Samkumar RA, Premnath D, Paulraj RSD (2016) Molecular docking and dynamic simulation studies of pentacyclic triterpenoids from E. ceae plants with snake venom phospolipase A2 and acostatin proteins. Int J Pharm Bio Sci 7(4):402–411. https://doi.org/10.22376/ijpbs.2016.7.4.b402-411 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bio assays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 15(3):473–497. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1962.tb08052.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Patil SB, Nilofar NS, Chandrakant CS (2009) Review on phytochemistry and pharmacological aspects of E. hirta Linn. Asian J Pharm Res and Health Care 1(1):113–133Google Scholar
- Pióro-Jabrucka EP, Pawelczak A, Prezbyl JL, Baczek K, Weglarz Z (2011) Accumulation of phenolic and sterol compounds in E. hirta (L.). Herba Polonica 57(2):30–37Google Scholar
- Selvakumar P, Kaniakumari D, Loganathan V (2012) Preliminary phytochemical investigation of extract of leaves and stem of E. hirta. Int J Curr Sci 2017:48–51Google Scholar
- Shih MF, Cherng JY (2012) Potential applications of E. hirta in pharmacology. In: Omboon Vallisuta (ed) Drug discovery research in pharmacognosy. InTech, Croatia, pp 165–180Google Scholar
- Sivagnanam SK, Rao RK, Mudiganti Dar UM, Gh. Jeelani P (2012) Preliminary phytochemical analysis of Artemesia amygdalina, Nerium odorum and Strychnos potatorum. J Pharm Res 5(7):3734–3739Google Scholar
- Sreekumar S, Nisha NC, Biju CK, Krishnan PN (2014) Identification of potential lead compounds against cobra venom in Rauvolfia serpentina (L.) Benth. Ex kurz through molecular docking. Int J Pharm Res Dev 6:32–43Google Scholar
- WHO (2007) Rabies and Envenomings: a neglected public health issue: report of a consultative meeting. WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- Yang ZS, Chen GD, Li YX, Chen J (2009) Characterization of callus formation in leaf of E. helioscopia. Afr J Plant Sci 3(6):122–126Google Scholar