Synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using flavonoid quercetin and their effects on lipopolysaccharide induced inflammatory response in microglial cells
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Quercetin is a plant origin phytochemical with several pharmaceutical activities such as antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory effects. However, consumption of quercetin is limited due to its low aqueous solubility and poor bioavailability. The aim of the present study was to synthesize silver and gold nanoparticles of quercetin with a view to improve its aqueous phase solubility and investigate the effects on LPS-induced neuroinflammation in BV-2 microglial cells. The average size of silver and gold-quercetin nanoparticles was 53 and 27 nm, respectively. Absorption peaks in the UV–Vis spectra were observed at 555 and 405 nm for gold and silver-quercetin nanoparticles, respectively. The particle size and mapping of silver and gold-quercetin nanoparticles were also determined using a STEM detector. The inflammatory stimulation of the BV-2 cells with LPS caused an elevated release of proinflammatory prostaglandin, E2, nitric oxide (NO), upregulated cyclooxygenase-2, inducible NO synthase mRNA, and protein levels, which were markedly inhibited by the pretreatment with gold-quercetin nanoparticles (highly soluble in water) without causing any cytotoxic effects. The findings of the present study suggest that the potential of gold-quercetin nanoparticles are much better than quercetin and that gold-quercetin nanoparticles might provide protection against inflammatory neurodegenerative disease via suppression of acute microglial activation.
KeywordsQuercetin Microglia Inflammation Nanoparticle
Inducible nitric oxide synthase
Scanning electron microscopy
Dulbecco’s modified Eagle medium
Fetal bovine serum
Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
Bicinchoninic acid assay
Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase
Mitogen-activated protein kinases
Thanks to Dr. Lucia Rackova (from the Slovak Academy of Sciences) for kindly supplying BV-2 cells. This research was supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) 2209A-Undergraduate Scholarship Program For National Students (1919B011501082).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
There is no conflict of interest to declare.
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