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3 Biotech

, 9:128 | Cite as

Effects of mixed cultures of Candida tropicalis and aromatizing yeast in alcoholic fermentation on the quality of apple vinegar

  • Qing Liu
  • Xingjiang Li
  • Congcong Sun
  • Qiaoyun Wang
  • Hongli Yao
  • Wei Yang
  • Zhi Zheng
  • Shaotong Jiang
  • Xuefeng WuEmail author
Original Article
  • 67 Downloads

Abstract

There are two steps (alcoholic fermentation and acetic acid fermentation) in the production of fruit vinegar by liquid fermentation. The yeast alcoholic fermentation step plays an important role in the quality of apple vinegar. In this work, Candida tropicalis and aromatizing yeast were used in mixed alcoholic fermentation to improve the flavor of the apple vinegar. The total organic acid contents of apple cider and vinegar in mixed cultures were all higher than those in pure culture (Candida tropicalis). Umami and sweet free amino acid levels in mixed-culture apple vinegar (MCAV; 1236.71 and 858.25 mg/L, respectively) were significantly higher than those in pure-culture apple vinegar (PCAV; 1214.69 and 820.37 mg/L, respectively). The total esters, total alcohols, and total phenolics were also significantly increased in MCAV (282.36 g/L, 254.22 g/L and 47.49 g/L, respectively), fruit flavor and floral aromas in MCAV were higher than that in PCAV. In the principal component analysis (PCA), the integrative score for MCAV was higher than that for PCAV. Therefore, mixed cultures of Candida tropicalis and aromatizing yeast in alcoholic fermentation can effectively improve the flavor and quality of apple cider vinegar; more details about the mixed culture need to be investigated in the future.

Keywords

Mixed cultures Organic acid Free amino acids Volatile flavor Odor activity value 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by National key R&D project (2018YFD0400400/2018YFD0400600) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (31601465).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qing Liu
    • 1
  • Xingjiang Li
    • 1
  • Congcong Sun
    • 1
  • Qiaoyun Wang
    • 1
  • Hongli Yao
    • 2
  • Wei Yang
    • 3
  • Zhi Zheng
    • 1
  • Shaotong Jiang
    • 1
  • Xuefeng Wu
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Food Science and EngineeringHefei University of TechnologyHefeiPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of biology and food engineeringBozhou UniversityBozhouPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Tianjin Agricultural UniversityTianjinPeople’s Republic of China

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