3 Biotech

, 9:128 | Cite as

Effects of mixed cultures of Candida tropicalis and aromatizing yeast in alcoholic fermentation on the quality of apple vinegar

  • Qing Liu
  • Xingjiang Li
  • Congcong Sun
  • Qiaoyun Wang
  • Hongli Yao
  • Wei Yang
  • Zhi Zheng
  • Shaotong Jiang
  • Xuefeng WuEmail author
Original Article


There are two steps (alcoholic fermentation and acetic acid fermentation) in the production of fruit vinegar by liquid fermentation. The yeast alcoholic fermentation step plays an important role in the quality of apple vinegar. In this work, Candida tropicalis and aromatizing yeast were used in mixed alcoholic fermentation to improve the flavor of the apple vinegar. The total organic acid contents of apple cider and vinegar in mixed cultures were all higher than those in pure culture (Candida tropicalis). Umami and sweet free amino acid levels in mixed-culture apple vinegar (MCAV; 1236.71 and 858.25 mg/L, respectively) were significantly higher than those in pure-culture apple vinegar (PCAV; 1214.69 and 820.37 mg/L, respectively). The total esters, total alcohols, and total phenolics were also significantly increased in MCAV (282.36 g/L, 254.22 g/L and 47.49 g/L, respectively), fruit flavor and floral aromas in MCAV were higher than that in PCAV. In the principal component analysis (PCA), the integrative score for MCAV was higher than that for PCAV. Therefore, mixed cultures of Candida tropicalis and aromatizing yeast in alcoholic fermentation can effectively improve the flavor and quality of apple cider vinegar; more details about the mixed culture need to be investigated in the future.


Mixed cultures Organic acid Free amino acids Volatile flavor Odor activity value 



This study was supported by National key R&D project (2018YFD0400400/2018YFD0400600) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (31601465).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


  1. Bedriñana RP, Queipo AL, Valles BS (2012) Screening of enzymatic activities in Non-Saccharomyces cider yeasts. J Food Biochem 36(6):683–689. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Birch AN, Petersen MA, Hansen AS (2013) The aroma profile of wheat bread crumb influenced by yeast concentration and fermentation temperature. LWT-Food Sci Technol 50(2):480–488. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Callejon RM, Morales ML, Ferreira ACS, Troncoso AM (2008) Defining the typical aroma of sherry vinegar: sensory and chemical approach. J Agr Food Chem 56: 8086–8095. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Camara JS, Alves MA, Marques JC (2006) Changes in volatile composition of Madeira wines during their oxidative ageing. Anal Chim Acta 563 (1):188–197. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cao JK, Jiang WB, Zhao YM (2013) Determination of reducing sugar content in fruits and vegetables. In: Cao JK, Jiang WB, Zhao YM (eds) Experiment guidance of postharvest physiology and biochemistry of fruits and vegetables Beijing. Light Industry Press, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen Y, Huang Y, Bai Y, Fu CX, Zhou MZ, Gao B et al (2017a) Effects of mixed cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus plantarum in alcoholic fermentation on the physicochemical and sensory properties of citrus vinegar. LWT-Food Sci Technol 84:753–763. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen Y, Bai Y, Li DS, Wang C, Xu N, Hu Y (2017b) Improvement of the flavor and quality of watermelon vinegar by high ethanol fermentation using ethanol-tolerant acetic acid bacteria. Int J Food Eng 13(4):002, 1–12. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ciani M, Comitini F (2011) Non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts have a promising role in biotechnological approaches to winemaking. Ann Microbiol 61(1):25–32. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Comitini F, Gobbi M, Domizio P, Romani C, Lencioni L, Mannazzu I, Ciani M (2011) Selected non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts in controlled multistarter fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Food Microbiol 28(5):873–882. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Dittrich F, Zajonc D, Hühne K, Hoja U, Ekici A, Greiner E et al (2010) Fatty acid elongation in yeast–biochemical characteristics of the enzyme system and isolation of elongation-defective mutants. Eur J Biochem 252(3):477–485. 1998. 2520 477.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Duan ZZ, Yuan M, Chang R, Zhou CQ (2017) The change of organic acids and volatile flavor substances in the processing of loquat vinegar and its influence on the product quality. Food Fermentation Industries 12:114–123. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Francis I, Newton JL (2005) Determining wine aroma from compositional data. Aust J Grape Wine R 11:114–126. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gao HY, Liao XJ, Wang SG, Hu XS (2004) Simultaneous determination of eleven organic acids in fruit juice by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography. Chinese Journal of Analytical Chemistry 32(12):1645–1648. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kong Y, Zhang LL, Sun Y, Zhang YY, Sun BG, Chen HT (2017) Determination of the free amino acid, organic acid, and nucleotide in commercial vinegars. J Food Sci 82(4/6):1116–1123. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Li X, Yu B, Curran P, Liu SQ (2011) Chemical and volatile composition of mango wines fermented with different Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains. S Afr J Enol Vitic 32(1):117–128. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Qi ZL, Dong D, Yang HL, Xia XL (2017) Improving fermented quality of cider vinegar via rational nutrient feeding strategy. Food Chem 224:312–319. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Štornik A, Skok B, Trček J (2016) Comparison of cultivable acetic acid bacterial microbiota in organic and conventional apple cider vinegar. Food Technol Biotech 54(1):113–119. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Sun XY (2015) Study of the prodution process and flavor compounds of orange vinegar. (Doctoral dissertation, Jiangnan University)Google Scholar
  19. Sun SY, Gong HS, Jiang XM, Zhao YP (2014) Selected non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts in controlled multistarter fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae on alcoholic fermentation behaviour and wine aroma of cherry wines. Food Microbiol 44 (6):15–23. 05.007CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Vilanova M, Martinez C (2007) First study of determination of aromatic compounds of red wine from Vitis vinifera cv. Castanal grown in Galicia (NW Spain). Eur Food Res Technol 224(4):431–436. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Wang DR (2008) Progress and application of L-malic acid. Ferm Technol Newsletter 37(3):27–30. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Wang JL, Huang MQ, Sun BG, Wu JH, Tu JQ (2013a) Application of electronic tongue technology in evaluation of vinegar taste. Food Fermentation Industries 39(11):220–226. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Wang Z, Yan M, Chen X, Li DS, Qin L, Li ZJ et al (2013b) Mixed culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Acetobacter pasteurianus, for acetic acid production. Biochem Eng J 79 (2):41–45. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Wang ZB, Li TT, Liu FY, Zhang CS, Ma HL, Wang L, Zhao S (2017) Effects of ultrasonic treatment on the maturation of Zhenjiang vinegar. Ultrason Sonochem 39:272–280. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Wu X, Yao H, Cao X, Liu Q, Cao L, Mu D et al (2017) Production of vinegar from purple sweet potato in a liquid fermentation process and investigation of its antioxidant activity. 3 Biotech.7 (5), 308. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Xiao Z, Dai S, Niu YE, Yu HY, Zhu JC, Tian HX et al (2011) Discrimination of chinese vinegars based on headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography mass spectrometry of volatile compounds and multivariate analysis. J Food Sci 76 (8):C1125–C1135. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Xie XL, Zheng Y, Liu X, Cheng C, Zhang XL, Xia X et al (2017) Antioxidant activity of chinese shanxi aged vinegar and its correlation with polyphenols and flavonoids during the brewing process. J Food Sci 82(10):2479–2486. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Ye MQ (2015) The regulation of cider aroma compounds and the determination based on fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy. (Doctoral dissertation, Northwest A&F University)Google Scholar
  29. Ye MQ, Yue TL, Yuan YH (2014) Effects of sequential mixed cultures of Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on apple cider fermentation. Fems Yeast Res 14(6):873–882. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Zhang Q, Xin XL, Yang FM, Chen L (2015) Evaluation of the relative odor activity value in red raspberry fruit vinegar by principal component analysis. Modern Food Sci Technol 31(11):332–338. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Zhu H, Zhu J, Wang LL, Li ZG (2016) Development of a SPME-GC-MS method for the determination of volatile compounds in Shanxi aged vinegar and its analytical characterization by aroma wheel. J Food Sci Technol 53(1):171–183. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qing Liu
    • 1
  • Xingjiang Li
    • 1
  • Congcong Sun
    • 1
  • Qiaoyun Wang
    • 1
  • Hongli Yao
    • 2
  • Wei Yang
    • 3
  • Zhi Zheng
    • 1
  • Shaotong Jiang
    • 1
  • Xuefeng Wu
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Food Science and EngineeringHefei University of TechnologyHefeiPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of biology and food engineeringBozhou UniversityBozhouPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Tianjin Agricultural UniversityTianjinPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations