3 Biotech

, 9:119 | Cite as

Proteome study of somatic embryogenesis in Nothapodytes nimmoniana (J. Graham) Mabberly

  • Tasiu IsahEmail author
Original Article


Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is the most suitable biotechnological tool for the rapid clonal propagation of endangered woody plants, but many bottlenecks limit understanding its molecular and physiological processes in Nothapodytes nimmoniana. Combinations of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry (MaSp) were used to study proteomic expression changes during SE of the forest tree. Callus was induced from mature seed embryos, and embryogenic callus (EC) obtained at very low frequency after about 6 month culture. Globular embryos were induced from the seed embryo-derived EC and the subsequent stages of the SE. Analysis of the extracted proteins from globular, heart/torpedo-shaped, and maturing embryo stages resolved in the 2-DE gels showed increased protein expression across developmental stages of the somatic embryos. The mass spectrometric analysis with database search aided identification of 55 out of 100 and 54 selected protein spots. Identified proteins classified by the cellular role which they perform are involved in aspects of stress responses, energy metabolism, carbon fixation, secondary metabolism, and other metabolic functions, while three proteins are of unknown cellular role. The putative role of the expressed proteins during SE provided insight into the physiology of somatic embryo development in N. nimmoniana.


Nothapodytes nimmoniana Camptothecin Somatic embryogenesis Proteomics Two-dimensional electrophoresis Mass spectrometry 



Somatic embryogenesis


Embryogenic callus


Two-dimensional electrophoresis


Murashige and Skoog medium


2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid


Naphthalene acetic acid


Indole 3-acetic acid




Gibberellic acid




Isoelectric focusing


National Center for Biotechnology


Mass spectrometry


Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide


Reactive oxygen species




Globular embryos


Heart/torpedo-shaped embryos


Mature/maturing embryos


High-performance thin-layer chromatography



Tasiu Isah is grateful to The World Academy of Science (TWAS) for the advancement of science in the developing World Trieste, Italy, and Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Government of India New Delhi for the award of DBT-TWAS Postgraduate Research Fellowship. Technical assistance provided by colleagues and laboratory technologist is acknowledge. Research facilities provided by the Department of Botany, Hamdard University New Delhi, India, are also acknowledged.

Author contributions

TI conceived the research idea, performed the experiments, and wrote the manuscript. TI, SU, and MPS assisted with intellectual contribution and editing of the manuscript. All authors approved the final version of the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Authors declare that no conflict of interest exists in the manuscript contents.

Supplementary material

13205_2019_1637_MOESM1_ESM.docx (7.5 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 7677 KB)


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Copyright information

© King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Botany, School of Chemical and Life SciencesHamdard UniversityNew DelhiIndia

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