Biodegradation of phenmedipham by novel Ochrobactrum anthropi NC-1
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An Ochrobactrum anthropi bacterial strain named as NC-1, capable of utilizing phenmedipham (PMP) herbicide as the sole of carbon source and energy for growth was isolated from pesticide-contaminated soil sample by enrichment culture technique. The isolated bacterial strain was identified as Ochrobactrum anthropi NC-1 (MH 796134) based on its morphological, cultural, biochemical characteristics and analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence. The strain NC-1 could degrade more than 98.5% of PMP (2 mM) within 168 h. The optimal degradation pH and temperature were 7.0 and 30–35 °C, respectively. The strain NC-1 degraded PMP by a pathway involving its initial hydrolysis of their central amide carbamate linkage to yield m-aminophenol via methyl-N-(3-hydroxyphenyl) carbamate and m-toluidine were the major intermediates. However, m-aminophenol was not further metabolized, because they neither supported the growth of organism nor stimulated oxygen uptake. But m-toluidine released by dealkylation was followed by hydrolysis. Further, results also revealed that degradation of 4-methyl catechol proceeded via 2-hydroxy-5-methyl-6-oxohexa-2, 4-dienoate through meta cleavage ring processes. The formation of these compounds was confirmed by UV, TLC, HPLC, IR, NMR, and GC–MS spectral analysis. The cell-free extracts of O. anthropi NC-1 grown on PMP contained the activities of PMP hydrolase, toluidine dioxygenase, and 4-methyl catechol 1, 2-dioxygenase. These results demonstrate the biodegradation of PMP and promote the potential use of strain NC-1 to bioremediate PMP-contaminated environment.
KeywordsBiodegradation Mineralization Ochrobactrum anthropi NC-1 Phenmedipham Post-emergence
Authors are thankful to the DST, New Delhi, for providing financial assistance (Grant no. PURSE-Phase-2/3 (G), SR).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors have declared that no conflicts of interest exist.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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