3 Biotech

, 9:25 | Cite as

Bioethanol production from agarophyte red seaweed, Gelidium elegans, using a novel sample preparation method for analysing bioethanol content by gas chromatography

  • Mohammad Javad HessamiEmail author
  • Sit Foon Cheng
  • Ranga Rao Ambati
  • Yeong Hui Yin
  • Siew Moi Phang
Original Article


In this study, Gelidium elegans is investigated for ethanol production. A combination of factors including different temperatures, acid concentration and incubation time was evaluated to determine the suitable saccharification conditions. The combination of 2.5% (w/v) H2SO4 at 120 °C for 40 min was selected for hydrolysis of the seaweed biomass, followed by purification, and fermentation to yield ethanol. The galactose and glucose were dominant reducing sugars in the G. elegans hydrolysate and under optimum condition of dilute acid hydrolysis, 39.42% of reducing sugars was produced and fermentation resulted in ethanol concentration of 13.27 ± 0.47 g/L. A modified method was evaluated for sample preparation for gas chromatography (GC) analysis of the ethanol content. A solvent mixture of acetonitrile and iso-butanol precipitated dissolved organic residues and reduced water content in GC samples at least by 90%. Results showed that this method could be successfully used for bioethanol production from seaweed.


G. elegans Seaweed Sample preparation Gas chromatography Bioethanol 



Gas chromatography


Carbon dioxide


National institute of technology evaluation


Yeast potato dextrose


Colony-forming unit


Sulphuric acid


Flame ionisation detector






Not detected


Dry weight



Authors acknowledge University of Malaya for providing University of Malaya Research Grant (Project no: PV026-2012), GC002B-15SBS and HICoE Grant IOES-2014F. We are grateful to the Algae Research Laboratory, University of Malaya members, specifically my good friends Dr. Bahram Barati, Dr. Vejeysri Vello and Mr. Hamed Nassrolahi who assisted us in this research work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Javad Hessami
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sit Foon Cheng
    • 2
  • Ranga Rao Ambati
    • 3
    • 4
  • Yeong Hui Yin
    • 3
  • Siew Moi Phang
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of SciencesUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of SciencesUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  3. 3.Institute of Ocean and Earth SciencesUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  4. 4.Department of BiotechnologyVignan’s Foundation for Science, Technology and Research (Deemed to be University)GunturIndia

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