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3 Biotech

, 8:412 | Cite as

Elicitation of silver nanoparticles enhanced the secondary metabolites and pharmacological activities in cell suspension cultures of bitter gourd

  • Ill-Min Chung
  • Kaliyaperumal Rekha
  • Govindasamy Rajakumar
  • Muthu Thiruvengadam
Original Article

Abstract

This study describes the influence of bio-synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on phytochemicals and their pharmacological activities in the cell suspension cultures (CSC) of bitter gourd. To standardize the effect of sucrose, plant growth regulators, medium, AgNPs and growth kinetics for the biomass and bioactive compounds accumulation in CSC of bitter gourd. The medium comprising MS salts, sucrose (30 g/L) with 2,4-D (1.0 mg/L) and TDZ (0.1 mg/L) at 28 days of CSC was appropriate for biomass and bioactive compound accumulation. The contents of silver, malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide were highly elevated in AgNPs (10 mg/L)-elicited CSC when compared with non-elicited CSC. AgNPs (5 mg/L) elicited CSC extracts had significantly enhanced the production of total phenolic (3.5 ± 0.2 mg/g), and flavonoid (2.5 ± 0.06 mg/g) contents than in the control CSC extracts (2.5 ± 0.1 and 1.6 ± 0.05 mg/g). AgNPs (5 mg/L) elicited CSC showed a higher amount of flavonols (1822.37 µg/g), hydroxybenzoic (1713.40 µg/g) and hydroxycinnamic (1080.10 µg/g) acids than the control CSC (1199, 1394.42 and 944.52 µg/g, respectively). Because of these metabolic changes, the pharmacological activities (antioxidant, antidiabetic, antibacterial, antifungal and anticancer) were high in the AgNPs (5 mg/L)-elicited CSC extracts in bitter gourd. The study suggested the effectiveness of elicitation process in enhancing the accumulation of phenolic compounds and pharmacological activities. AgNPs-elicited CSC offered an effective and favorable in vitro method to improve the production of bioactive compounds for potential uses in pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords

Cell suspension culture Pharmacological activity Phenolic compounds Reactive oxygen species Silver nanoparticles 

Abbreviations

2,4-D

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

AgNO3

Silver nitrate

AgNPs

Silver nanoparticles

AlCl3

Aluminum chloride

AOA

Antioxidant activity

BAP

Benzyl amino purine

C6N6FeK3

Potassium ferricyanide

CH3CO2K

Potassium acetate

CSC

Cell suspension culture

DNSA

Dinitrosalicylic acid

DPPH

1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl

H2O2

Hydrogen peroxide

H8MoN2O4

Ammonium molybdate

IAA

Indole acetic acid

ICP-MS

Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

MDA

Malondialdehyde

MS

Murashige and Skoog

MTT

Thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide

NAA

Naphthalene acetic acid

NaClO

Sodium hypochlorite

NH4OH

Ammonia solution

PGRs

Plant growth regulators

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

TCA

Trichloroacetic acid

TDZ

Thidiazuron

TEM

Transmission electron microscopy

UHPLC

Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography

Notes

Acknowledgements

This paper was supported by the KU Research Professor Program of Konkuk University, Seoul, South Korea.

Author contributions

MT designed and performed the experiment and also wrote the manuscript. IMC, KR and GR analyzed the experiments and helped to write the manuscript. All authors read and approved the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ill-Min Chung
    • 1
  • Kaliyaperumal Rekha
    • 2
  • Govindasamy Rajakumar
    • 1
  • Muthu Thiruvengadam
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Applied Bioscience, College of Life and Environmental SciencesKonkuk UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Environmental and Herbal ScienceTamil UniversityThanjavurIndia

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