3 Biotech

, 8:407 | Cite as

Improving palm kernel cake nutrition using enzymatic hydrolysis optimized by Taguchi method

  • Witida Sathitkowitchai
  • Sunee Nitisinprasert
  • Suttipun KeawsompongEmail author
Original Article


Enzymatic hydrolysis of palm kernel cake to improve the quality of substrates with multi-response criteria based on the Taguchi orthogonal array. Nine experimental runs were performed based on an L9 orthogonal array. Percent substrate, incubation time, and enzyme units were optimized considering multiple performance characteristics. Analysis of variance was also applied to identify the most significant factors. Results determined percent substrate as the most important factor for enzymatic hydrolysis followed by incubation time and enzyme units. Enzymatic hydrolysis conditions were optimized as percent substrate, incubation time and enzyme units at 14%, 6 h and 750 units, respectively. Tests were conducted to compare experimental and model results. The experimental result (protein release) at optimal condition were three times higher than the predicted mode.


Palm kernel cake L9 orthogonal array Enzymatic hydrolysis Taguchi method 



This research was financially supported by a Research and Researchers for Industries (RRI) Ph.D. program (PHD56I0043), The Thailand Research Fund (TRF), Betagro Science Centre Co., Ltd., and Betagro Public Co. Ltd.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest in the publication.


  1. AOAC (2005) In: Horwitz W, Latimer Jr GW (eds) Official methods of analysis, 18th edn. AOAC International, GaithersburgGoogle Scholar
  2. Bedford MR (1995) Mechanism of action and potential environmental benefits from the use of feed enzymes. Anim Feed Sci Technol 53:145–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bradford MM (1976) A rapid and sensitive method for quantitation of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem 72:248–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Carpita N, McCann M (2000) The cell wall. In: Buchanan B, Gruissem W, Jones R (eds) Biochemistry and molecular biology of plants. Wiley, Rockville, pp 52–108Google Scholar
  5. Chauhan PS, Puri N, Sharma P, Gupta N (2012) Mannanases: microbial sources, production, properties and potential biotechnological applications. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 93:1817–1830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chin FY (2008) Palm kernel cake (PKC) as a supplement for fattening and dairy cattle in Malaysia. In: 7th Meeting of the regional working group on grazing and feed resources. Forage Development in Southeast Asia: Strategies and Impacts. doc/proceedings/manado/Chap.25.htm. Accessed 1 Mar 2018
  7. Dhawan S, Kaur J (2007) Microbial mannanases: an overview of production and applications. Crit Rev Biotechnol 27(4):197–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. DuBois M, Gilles KA, Hamilton JK, Rebers PA, Smith F (1956) Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Anal Chem 28:350–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Düsterhöft M, Posthumus A, Voragen AGJ (2006) Non-starch polysaccharides from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) meal and palm-kernel (Elaeis guineensis) meal-investigation of the structure of major polysaccharides E-M. J Sci Food Agric 59(2):151–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Eggum BO, Monowar L, Bach Knudsen KE, Munck L, Axtell J (1983) Nutritional quality of sorghum and sorghum foods from Sudan. J Cereal Sci 1:127–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ijah UJJ, Ukpe LI (1992) Biodegradation of crude oil by Bacillus Strains 28A and 61B isolated from oil spilled soil. Waste Manage (Oxford) 12(1):55–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jaafar MD, Jarvis MC (1992) Mannans of oil palm kernels. Phytochemistry 31(2):463–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kivak T (2014) Optimization of surface roughness and flank wear using the Taguchi method in milling of Hadfield steel with PVD and CVD coated inserts. Measurement 50:19–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Miller GR, Blum R, Glennon W, Burton A (1959) Measurement of carboxymethyl cellulase activity. Anal Biochem 2:127–132Google Scholar
  15. Ng KL, Mohd Khan A (2012) Enzymatic preparation of palm kernel expeller protein hydrolysate (PKEPH). Int Food Res J 19(2):721–725Google Scholar
  16. Office of Agricultural Economics (OAE) (2017) Center for agricultural information ministry of agriculture and co-operatives. Background information of agricultural Economics. Accessed 1 Mar 2018
  17. Phothichitto K, Nitisinprasert S, Keawsompong S (2006) Isolation, screening and identification of mannanase producing microorganisms. Kasetsart J (Nat Sci) 40:26–38Google Scholar
  18. Ravindran V, Son JH (2011) Feed enzyme technology: present status and feed developments. Recent Pat Food Nutr Agric 3:102–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sundu B, Dingle J (2011) Use of enzymes to improve the nutritional value of palm kernel meal and copra meal. Proc Qld Poult Sci Symp Aust 11(14):1–15Google Scholar
  20. Van Soest PJ (1963) Use of detergents in the analysis of fibrous feeds. II. A rapid method for the determination of fiber and lignin. J Ass Offic Anal Chem 46:829–835Google Scholar
  21. Van Beilen JB, Li Z (2002) Enzyme technology: an overview. Curr Opin Biotechnol 13(4):338–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Witida Sathitkowitchai
    • 1
  • Sunee Nitisinprasert
    • 1
    • 2
  • Suttipun Keawsompong
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Agro-IndustryKasetsart UniversityBangkokThailand
  2. 2.Center for Advanced Studies for Agriculture and Food, Kasetsart University Institute for Advanced StudiesKasetsart University (CASAF, NRU-KU)BangkokThailand

Personalised recommendations