3 Biotech

, 8:397 | Cite as

Diversity of bacterial endophytes in Panax ginseng and their protective effects against pathogens

  • Chi Eun Hong
  • Jang Uk Kim
  • Jung Woo Lee
  • Sung Woo Lee
  • Ick-Hyun JoEmail author
Short Reports


Although endophytic bacteria are known to colonize Panax ginseng, little is known about their diversity and roles. We addressed in the present study by comparing endophytic bacterial populations in P. ginseng plants of different ages (2–6 years) and in various tissue types (root, stem, leaf, and flower stalk). A total of 116 strains assigned to 42 species were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing. The predominant phylum was Firmicutes. Two-year-old ginseng plants and root tissues showed the greatest diversity of endophytic bacteria, with Bacillales being the predominant order. The antifungal activity of isolates against two pathogens, Cylindrocarpon destructans and/or Botrytis cinerea, was evaluated in dual-culture assays. In total, 28 strains showed antifungal activity with PgBE14 (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens), PgBE40 (B. megaterium), PgBE39, PgBE45 (Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis), and PgBE42 (Staphylococcus saprophyticus) inhibiting both pathogens. These results improve our understanding of the structure and diversity of endophytic bacterial communities of P. ginseng and identify strains with antifungal activity that have potential applications as biocontrol agents.


Bacterial endophyte Panax ginseng Cylindrocarpon destructans Botrytis cinerea 



This work was supported by the Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development (Project no. PJ PJ011757012018), Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea; and the 2018 Postdoctoral Fellowship Program of National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea.

Author contributions

I-HJ, CEH, JUK, JWL and SWL conceived and designed the experiments; CEH performed the experiments; IHJ and CEH analyzed the data; CEH and I-HJ wrote the manuscript. All authors critically read and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Cho KM, Hong SY, Lee SM, Kim YH, Kang GG, Lim YP, Kim H, Yun HD (2007) Endophytic bacterial communities in ginseng and their antifungal activity against pathogens. Microb Ecol 54:341–351CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Cho HS, Jeon YH, Do GR, Cho DH, Yu YH (2008) Mycological characteristics of Botrytis cinerea causing gray mold on ginseng in Korea. J Ginseng Res 32:26–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chowdhury EK, Jeon J, Rim SO, Park YH, Lee SK, Bae H (2017) Composition, diversity and bioactivity of culturable bacterial endophytes in mountain-cultivated ginseng in Korea. Sci Rep 7:10098CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Eo JK, Choi MS, Eom AH (2014) Diversity of endophytic fungi isolated from Korean ginseng leaves. Mycobiology 42:147–151CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Hardoim PR, van Overbeek LS, Berg G, Pirttila AM, Compant S, Campisano A, Doring M, Sessitsch A (2015) The hidden world within plants: ecological and evolutionary considerations for defining functioning of microbial endophytes. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 79:293–320CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Hong CE, Jo SH, Moon JY, Lee JS, Kwon SY, Park JM (2015) Isolation of novel leaf-inhabiting endophytic bacteria in Arabidopsis thaliana and their antagonistic effects on phytophathogens. Plant Biotechnol Rep 9:451–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Jang YL, Kim SG, Kim YH (2011) Biocontrol efficacies of Bacillus species against Cylindrocarpon destructans causing ginseng root rot. Plant Pathol J 27:333–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ma L, Cao YH, Cheng MH, Huang Y, Mo MH, Wang Y, Yang JZ, Yang FX (2013) Phylogenetic diversity of bacterial endophytes of Panax notoginseng with antagonistic characteristics towards pathogens of root-rot disease complex. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 103:299–312CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. McInroy JA, Kloepper JW (1995) Survey of indigenous bacterial endophytes from cotton and sweet corn. Plant Soil 173:337–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Park SY, Yang SH, Choi SK, Kim JG, Park SH (2007) Isolation and characterization of endophytic bacteria from rice root cultivated in Korea. Kor J Microbiol Biotechnol 35:1–10Google Scholar
  11. Park YH, Kim YC, Park SU, Lim HS, Kim JB, Cho BK, Bae H (2012a) Age-dependent distribution of fungal endophytes in Panax ginseng roots cultivated in Korea. J Ginseng Res 36:327–333CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Park YH, Lee SG, Ahn DJ, Kwon TR, Park SU, Lim HS, Bae H (2012b) Diversity of fungal endophytes in various tissues of Panax ginseng Meyer cultivated in Korea. J Ginseng Res 36:211–217CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Park YH, Kim Y, Mishra RC, Bae H (2017) Fungal endophytes inhabiting mountain-cultivated ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer): diversity and biocontrol activity against ginseng pathogens. Sci Rep 7:16221CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Ryan RP, Germaine K, Franks A, Ryan DJ, Dowling DN (2008) Bacterial endophytes: recent developments and applications. FEMS Microbiol Lett 278:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Song X, Wu H, Yin Z, Lian M, Yin C (2017) Endophytic bacteria isolated from Panax ginseng improves ginsenoside accumulation in adventitious ginseng root culture. Molecules 22:pii: E837Google Scholar
  16. Vendan RT, Yu YJ, Lee SH, Rhee YH (2010) Diversity of endophytic bacteria in ginseng and their potential for plant growth promotion. J Microbiol 48:559–565CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Verhagen BW, Trotel-Aziz P, Couderchet M, Hofte M, Aziz A (2010) Pseudmonas spp.-induced systemic resistance to Botrytis cinerea is associated with induction and priming of defence responses in grapevine. J Exp Bot 61:249–260CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Herbal Crop ResearchNational Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, Rural Development AdministrationEumseongSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations