3 Biotech

, 8:366 | Cite as

Addition of ionophore A23187 increases the efficiency of Cocos nucifera somatic embryogenesis

  • Gustavo Rivera-Solís
  • Luis Sáenz-Carbonell
  • María Narváez
  • Guillermo Rodríguez
  • Carlos OropezaEmail author
Original Article


The present study reports the effect of treatment of coconut embryogenic structure explants (derived from embryogenic callus) with the calcium ionophore A23187 (0, 1, 5, 10 µM) to promote somatic embryogenesis under in vitro conditions. The results showed no significant increase in the percentage of explants forming embryogenic callus, but with 1 µM ionophore there were significant increases in the formation of embryogenic structures per callus (2.8-fold), of somatic embryos per callus (1.5-fold) and also a greater absolute number (1.5-fold) of developing plantlets per callus. The ionophore treatment also promoted a change of pattern of the expression of the CnSERK gene during embryogenic callus formation. It is proposed that if the use of ionophore A23187 treatment is coupled with an embryogenic callus multiplication process there could be a potentially greater increase in the efficiency of the formation of somatic embryos and plantlets of coconut.


Coconut Somatic embryogenesis Calcium ionophore A23187 Cn SERK 



The authors thanks, IA José Luis Chan Rodríguez, for the technical support and advice; Fomix-Yucatán (Mexico, YUC-2011-C09-169886) and Centro de Investgación Científica de Yucatán A.C, for partial funding; and to Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología for a scholarship (242979) for Gustavo Alberto Rivera-Solís.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest in publication of this paper.

Research involving human and animal participant

This article does not contain any studies with human subjects or animal performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gustavo Rivera-Solís
    • 1
  • Luis Sáenz-Carbonell
    • 1
  • María Narváez
    • 1
  • Guillermo Rodríguez
    • 1
  • Carlos Oropeza
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán (CICY), A.C., Unidad de BiotecnologíaMéridaMexico

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