Augmentation of pyrethrins content in callus of Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium and establishing its insecticidal activity by molecular docking of NavMS Sodium Channel Pore receptor
- 84 Downloads
Pyrethrins are effective food-grade bio-pesticides obtained from the flowers of Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium and this crop cannot be cultivated widely in India due to its specific agro-climatic requirement. Hence pyrethrins are mostly imported from Kenya. Therefore, the present study aims to develop a process for augmentation of pyrethrin contents in C. cinerariaefolium callus and establish the correlation between early knockdown effects through docking on grain storage insect. In vitro seedlings were used as explants to induce callus on MS medium with different concentrations of auxins and cytokinins. Pyrethrin extracted from the callus was estimated by RP-HPLC. In callus, total pyrethrin was found to be 17.5 µg/g, which is higher than that found in natural flowers of certain Pyrethrum cultivars. The concentrations of cinerin II, pyrethrin II and jasmoline II were quite high in callus grown on solid medium. Bio-efficacy of pyrethrum extracts of flower and callus on insect Tribolium sp., showed higher repellency and early knock-down effect when compared with pure compound pestanal. Further, the rapid knockdown effect of all pyrethrins components was established by molecular docking studies targeting NavMS Sodium Channel Pore receptor docking followed by multiple ligands simultaneous docking, performed to investigate the concurrent binding of different combinations of pyrethrin. Among the six pyrethrin components, the pyrethrin I and II were found to be a more efficient, binding more firmly to the target, exhibiting higher possibilities of insecticidal effect by an early knockdown mechanism.
KeywordsTribolium sp. C. cinerariaefolium Sodium-gate receptor Bio-pesticides Molecular docking
The work was funded by CSIR, New Delhi (Network project BSC-0105) and authors express their gratitude to the Director, CSIR-Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore, for his support.
NPS, BLN and PM designed the research. PM, SKS and MS performed the experiments and ARSJ and PM performed in silico analysis. PM wrote the paper. All authors approved the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
There is no conflict of interest from the funding sources or any authors.
- Allan CG, Miller TA (1990) Long-acting pyrethrin formulations. In: Casida JE (ed) Pesticides and alternatives: innovative chemical and biological approaches to pest control. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 357–364Google Scholar
- Ban D, Sladonja B, Luki M, Luki I, Lušeti V, Gani KK (2010) Comparison of pyrethrins extraction methods efficiencies. Afr J Biotechnol 9:2702–2708Google Scholar
- Carlson DT (1995) Pyrethrum extract, refining and analysis. In: Casida JE, Quistad GB (eds) Pyrethrum flowers. Production, chemistry, toxicology and uses. Oxford University Press, Inc, New York, pp 95–104Google Scholar
- Casida JE, Quistad GB (1995) Pyrethrum flowers: production, chemistry, toxicology and uses. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Elias P (2013) The use of deltamethrin on farm animals. In: Insecticides-development of safer and more effective technologies. InTech, London, pp 495–503Google Scholar
- Environmental Protection Agency (1989) Federal insecticide, fungicide and rodenticide act (FIFRA); good laboratory practice standards. Final rule. 40 CFR Part 160. Fed Reg 1989b 54:34067–34074Google Scholar
- George EF, Hall MA, de Klerk GJ (2008) Plant propagation by tissue culture volume 1: the background. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 355–402Google Scholar
- Khanna P, Khanna R (1976) Endogenous free ascorbic acid & effect of exogenous ascorbic acid on growth & production of pyrethrins from in vitro tissue culture of Tagetes erecta L. Indian J Exp Biol 14:630–631Google Scholar
- Kimani S, Sum K (1999) Bioefficacy of essential oils extracted from pyrethrum vegetable waxy resins and green oils against stored product insect pests, Tribolium castaneum (Hbst.) and Sitophilus oryzae (L.). Pyret Post 20:91–100Google Scholar
- Laundani H, Davis DF, Swank GR (1955) A laboratory method of evaluating the repellency of treated paper to stored-product insects. TAPPI 38:336341Google Scholar
- Mahadevappa P, Ramesh C, Krishna V, Raghavendra S (2014) Influence of different cytokinins on direct shoot regeneration from the different explants of Carthamus tinctorius L. Var Annigeri-2 (A high oil-yielding variety). Ann Biol Res 5:14–20Google Scholar
- Mc Donald LL, Guy RH, Speirs RD (1970) Preliminary evaluation of new candidate materials as toxicants, repellents and attractants against stored product insects—I. Marketing research report no. 882. Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. p 8Google Scholar
- Mulungu L, Kubala M, Mhamphi G et al (2010) Efficacy of protectants against maize weevils (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky) and the larger grain borer (Prostphanus truncatus Horn) for stored maize. Int J Plant Sci 1:150–154Google Scholar
- Rajasekaran T, Ravishankar G, Rajendran L, Venkataraman L (1991) Bioefficacy of pyrethrins extracted from callus tissues of Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium. Pyret Post 18:52–54Google Scholar
- Ravishankar G, Rajasekaran T, Sarma K, Venkataraman L (1989) Production of pyrethrins in cultured tissues of pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium Vis). Pyret Post 17:66–69Google Scholar
- Shoenig GP (1995) Mammalian Toxicology of pyrethrum extract. In: Casida JE, Quistad GB (eds) Pyrethrum flowers. Production, chemistry, toxicology, and uses. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 249–257Google Scholar
- Soderlund DM (2005) Sodium channels. In: Gilbert L, Iatrou K, Gill S (eds) Comprehensive molecular insect science, vol 5. Elsevier, New York, pp 1–24Google Scholar
- Van Latum E, Gerrits R (1991) Bio-pesticides in developing countries: prospects and research priorities. ACTS, NairobiGoogle Scholar
- Warui C, Kega V, Onyango R (1990) Evaluation of an improved pyrethrum formulation in the control of maize pests in Kenya. Pyret Post 18:15–17Google Scholar