Optimization of surface plasmon resonance-based biosensors for monitoring hemoglobin levels in human blood

  • A. KeshavarzEmail author
  • S. Zangenehzadeh
  • A. Hatef
Original Article


Biological sensors based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) are used in a wide range of fields such as pharmacy, medicine, food and drink safety to measure biological and chemical parameters. These sensors function by detecting changes in the refractive index of the sample environment. In this paper a biosensor design based on surface Plasmon resonance is introduced for the purpose of monitoring hemoglobin concentrations in human blood. Our design is based on a Kretschmann structure which contains an SF10 prism, with metal, graphene and metal dichalcogenide layers. The optical source considered here is a He–Ne laser with the wavelength of 632.8 nm. The effect of adding graphene and metal dichalcogenide layers to the structure of these sensors has been investigated. Our investigation of this structure shows that depending on the specific structure of metal dichalcogenide, the addition of this layer increases the sensitivity of the sensor. Using this optimized structure, our main goal of a blood health monitoring device can be achieved. We use this structure to determine the reflection coefficients that correspond with the healthy range of hemoglobin concentration in human blood based on the refractive index of human blood. This sensor is first optimized for sensitivity using water as a sample, this optimized sensor is then used to investigate the range of human blood in a healthy state of blood iron for men and women between the ages of 20 until 80 years. Results show that the reflection coefficients of the optimized structure for healthy range of hemoglobin concentrations for an adult man is from 0.6805(a.u) to 0.7067(a.u) and for an adult female is from 0.6547(a.u) to 0.6583(a.u).


Surface plasmon resonance Biosensors Concentration of hemoglobin Refractive index of human blood 



  1. Ansarihadipour H, Ziafatikafi H (2012) Structural and spectroscopic changes of human hemoglobin during iron-mediated oxidative stress. J Arak Univ Med Sci 14(6):10–18Google Scholar
  2. Beutler E, Waalen J (2006) The definition of anemia: what is the lower limit of normal of the blood hemoglobin concentration. Blood 107:1747–1750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chan KT, Neaton JB, Cohen ML (2008) First-principles study of metal adatom adsorption on graphene. Phys Rev B 77:235430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Homola J (2008) Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species. Chem Rev 108:462–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Homola J, Koudela I, Yee SS (1999) Surface plasmon resonance sensors based on diffraction gratings and prism couplers: sensitivity comparison. Sens Actuat B Chem 54:16–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Johnson PB, Christy RW Phys Rev B 6:4370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Komlev AE, Dyukin RV, Shutova ES (2017) The method of controlling the thickness of the deposited film on the basis of the surface plasmon resonance effect. J Phys Conf 872:012042CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Krasnok A, Lepeshov S, Alú A (2018) Nanophotonics with 2D Transition Metal Dichalcogenides. Opt Express 26(12):15972–15994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kretschmann E, Raether H (1968) Radiative decay of non-radiative surface plasmons excited by light. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung A 23:2135–2136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lin Z, Jiang L, Wu L, Guo J, Dai X, Xiang Y, Fan D (2000) Tuning and sensitivity enhancement of surface plasmon resonance biosensor with graphene covered Au-MoS 2-Au films. IEEE Photon J 8:1–8Google Scholar
  11. Maharana PK, Jha R (2012) Chalcogenide prism and graphene multilayer based surface plasmon resonance affinity biosensor for high performance. Sens Actuat B CHEM 169(2):465–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Maharana PK, Padhy P, Jha R (2013) AMPK Activation Ameliorates Alzheimer's Disease-Like Pathology and Spatial Memory Impairment in a Streptozotocin-Induced Alzheimer's Disease Model in Rats. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 43:2156–2159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Maharana PK, Srivastava T, Jha R (2015) Low index dielectric mediated surface plasmon resonance sensor based on graphene for near infrared measurements. J Phys D Appl Phys 47:385102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Maier SA (2007) Plasmonics: fundamentals and applications. Springer Science & Business Media, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mehan N, Gupta V, Sreenivas K, Mansingh A (2005) Surface plasmon resonance based refractive index sensor for liquids. Indian J Pure Appl Phys 43:854–858Google Scholar
  16. Murray WA, Barnes WL (2007) Plasmonic materials. Adv Mater 19:3771–3782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Otto JM, Plumb JO, Clissold E, Kumar SB, Wakeham DJ, Schmidt W, Grocott MP, Richards T, Montgomery HE (2017) Hemoglobin concentration, total hemoglobin mass and plasma volume in patients implications for anemia. Haematologica 102(9):1477–1485. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Quyang Q, Zeng S, Jiang L, Hong L, Xu G, Dinh XQ, Qian J, He S, Qu J, Coquet P, Yong KT (2016) Sensitivity enhancement of transition metal dichalcogenides/silicon nanostructure-based surface plasmon resonance biosensor. Sci Rep 6:28190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Raether H (1988) Surface plasmons on smooth surfaces In Surface plasmons on smooth and rough surfaces and on gratings. Springer, Berlin, pp 4–39. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Verma R, Gupta BD, Jha R (2011) Sensitivity enhancement of a surface plasmon resonance based biomolecules sensor using graphene and silicon layers. Sens Actuat B CHEM 160:623–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Wu L, Chu HS, Koh WS, Li EP (2010) Highly sensitive graphene biosensors based on surface plasmon resonance. Opt Express 18:14395–14400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Zhernovaya O, Sydoruk O, Tuchin V, Douplik A (2011) The refractive index of human hemoglobin in the visible range. Phys Med Biol 56:4013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Zourob M, Lakhtakia A (2010) Optical guided-wave chemical and biosensors II. Springer Science & Business Media, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhysicsShiraz University of TechnologyShirazIran
  2. 2.Nipissing Computational Physics Laboratory, Department of Computer Science and MathematicsNipissing UniversityNorth BayCanada

Personalised recommendations