Development of biopolymer-mediated nanocomposites using hot-melt extrusion to enhance the bio-accessibility and antioxidant capacity of kenaf seed flour
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The current study was aimed to enhance the bio-accessibility and functionality of bioactive compounds from kenaf seed flour. Hence, eight different formulations (F1–F8) of kenaf seed nanocomposites (KNC) were prepared using lecithin, whey protein concentrated, and ascorbic acid by hot-melt extrusion (HME) at 80 °C, 100 °C, and 120 °C. Results revealed that F3 and F6 formulations at 100 °C were very promising; exhibited nano-size particle and dispersion, better water absorption-related parameters, and higher content of total polyphenol as well as total flavonoid. Besides, F3 and F6 also exhibited significant antioxidant potentials, evaluated by 1,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl (OH) radical assays. The superior performances of F3 and F6 were evaluated by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). FTIR confirmed physical crosslinking generation between kenaf seed powder and biopolymers. Multiple water channels were identified through SEM analysis. Therefore, F3 and F6 formulations may be considered as noble formulations to improve bio-accessibility and antioxidant capacity of kenaf seed flour.
KeywordsKenaf seed Biopolymers Hot-melt extrusion Food nanocomposites Extraction and bio-accessibility Antioxidant capacity
This study was supported by the Kangwon National University research Grant 2017 (520170420). We also highly acknowledge the Institute of Kenaf Co., Ltd., Chuncheon 24341, Republic of Korea.
MA designed and conducted the experiment, analyzed the data, and drafted the final manuscript, MOKA, JMS, HSJ, AM, CHP, and MHS revised and improved the manuscript, DHC supervised this research.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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