Biogenic synthesis of iron oxide nanorods using Moringa oleifera leaf extract for antibacterial applications

  • Samson O. AisidaEmail author
  • Ngozi Madubuonu
  • M. Hisham Alnasir
  • Ishaq Ahmad
  • S. Botha
  • M. Maaza
  • Fabian I. EzemaEmail author
Original Article


Biogenic synthesis of iron oxide nanorods (FeO-NRs) from FeCl3 capped with Moringa oleifera (MO) has been developed in this work. The facile, cost effective, and eco-friendly FeO-NRs formulated were characterized using various techniques. The change in the visible color which leads to the formulation of FeO-NRs was confirmed by the UV–visible spectroscopy analysis. The crystallinity of FeO-NRs was observed in the X-ray diffraction spectroscopy pattern indexed to the spinel cubic lattice in the tetrahedral hematite structure. A rod-like morphology of FeO-NRs with the average particle size of 15.01 ± 6.03 nm was determined by the scanning and transmission electron microscopies. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis shows the various functional groups in the formulatedFeO-NRs. Vibrating sample magnetometer shows that the formulated FeO-NRs are superparamagnetic with good saturation magnetization. The formulated FeO-NRs inhibit the growth of six human pathogens with a higher activity at lower concentrations. It is noteworthy that the bacterial strains show strong and effective susceptibility to the formulated FeO-NRs at lower concentrations compared to the conventional antibacterial drugs. Hence, the formulated FeO-NRs proved to be a good, efficient, and promising antibacterial agent due to its cost-effectiveness, non-toxicity, and facile synthesis procedures in therapeutic biomedical fields.


Biomaterials Iron oxide nanoparticles Moringa oleifera Antibacterial activities Nanorod 



Samson O. Aisida (NCP-CAAD/TWAS_Fellow8408) acknowledges the NCP-TWAS Postdoc Fellowship award. FIE (90407830) acknowledges UNISA for VRSP Fellowship award; he also acknowledges the grant by TETFUND under contract number TETF/DESS/UNN/NSUKKA/STI/VOL.I/B4.33. Also, we thank Engr. Emeka Okwuosa for the sponsorship of 2014, 2016, and 2018 nano-conferences/workshops.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


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© King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physics and AstronomyUniversity of NigeriaNsukkaNigeria
  2. 2.National Center for PhysicsIslamabadPakistan
  3. 3.Department of PhysicsCOMSATS UniversityIslamabadPakistan
  4. 4.NPU-NCP Joint International Research Center on Advanced Nanomaterials and Defects EngineeringNorthwestern Polytechnical UniversityXi’anChina
  5. 5.Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National ResearchWestern CapeSouth Africa
  6. 6.UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences/Nanotechnology, College of Graduate StudiesUniversity of South Africa (UNISA)PretoriaSouth Africa
  7. 7.Microscopy UnitUniversity of Western CapeWestern CapeSouth Africa
  8. 8.Department of Physics, Faculty of Natural and Applied SciencesCoal City UniversityEnuguNigeria

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