Advertisement

Enhanced sunlight-driven photocatalytic performance of Ag–ZnO hybrid nanoflowers

  • Sammia ShahidEmail author
  • Urooj Fatima
  • Muhammad Zaheer Rasheed
  • Muhammad Nadeem Asghar
  • Sabah Zaman
  • M. N. Sarwar
Original Article
  • 12 Downloads

Abstract

Photocatalytic materials such as Ag-coated ZnO nanoflowers, pristine ZnO nanoflowers and ZnO nanorods were synthesized by template-assisted method for the treatment of industrial waste water through photocatalysis. Electropolishing and anodization lead to the formation of alumina template. After that, hydrothermal treatment was carried out for the growth of ZnO nanoflowers and nanorods on the template. The morphology of synthesized samples was investigated by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction patterns and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. XRD patterns of samples clearly indicate the well crystalline structure of synthesized materials. The presence of Ag in Ag-coated ZnO nanoflowers was confirmed by EDS spectral analysis and X-ray diffraction patterns. Grain size was found to be in the range of 10–25 nm as calculated by Scherer’s formula from XRD patterns. The sunlight-driven photocatalytic activity of Ag-coated ZnO nanoflowers, ZnO nanoflowers and ZnO nanorods was investigated and compared with each other. In addition, the stability and recovery of photocatalyst were also checked. Photocatalytic degradation experiment results indicated that Ag-coated ZnO nanoflowers had highest photocatalytic activity towards methylene blue dye.

Keywords

Pristine ZnO nanoflowers Hydrothermal synthesis Anodization Photocatalysis 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to appreciate the University of Management & Technology, Lahore, Pakistan for providing the financial support of this work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Akkari M, Aranda P, Mayoral A, García-Hernández M, Amara ABH, Ruiz-Hitzky E (2017) Sepiolite nanoplatform for the simultaneous assembly of magnetite and zinc oxide nanoparticles as photocatalyst for improving removal of organic pollutants. J Hazard Mater 340:281–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ateş S, Baran E, Yazıcı B (2018) The nanoporous anodic alumina oxide formed by two-step anodization. Thin Solid Films 648:94–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chang Y-C, Lin P-S, Liu F-K, Guo J-Y, Chen C-M (2016) One-step and single source synthesis of Cu-doped ZnO nanowires on flexible brass foil for highly efficient field emission and photocatalytic applications. J Alloy Compd 688:242–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen Y, Tse WH, Chen L, Zhang J (2015) Ag nanoparticles-decorated ZnO nanorod array on a mechanical flexible substrate with enhanced optical and antimicrobial properties. Nanoscale Res Lett 10(1):106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Choi J, Chan S, Joo H, Yang H, Ko FK (2016) Three-dimensional (3D) palladium-zinc oxide nanowire nanofiber as photo-catalyst for water treatment. Water Res 101:362–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Feng Y, Wang G, Liao J, Li W, Chen C, Li M, Li Z (2017) Honeycomb-like ZnO mesoporous nanowall arrays modified with Ag nanoparticles for highly efficient photocatalytic activity. Sci Rep 7(1):11622–11633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Guo Q, Zhang Q, Wang H, Liu Z, Zhao Z (2016) Core-shell structured ZnO@ Cu–Zn–Al layered double hydroxides with enhanced photocatalytic efficiency for CO2 reduction. Catal Commun 77:118–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Holkar CR, Jadhav AJ, Pinjari DV, Mahamuni NM, Pandit AB (2016) A critical review on textile wastewater treatments: possible approaches. J Environ Econ Manag 182:351–366Google Scholar
  9. Hui A, Ma J, Liu J, Bao Y, Zhang J (2017) Morphological evolution of Fe doped sea urchin-shaped ZnO nanoparticles with enhanced photocatalytic activity. J Alloy Compd 696:639–647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ikraam M, Shahid S, Zaman S, Sarwar M (2016) Fabrication and characterization of TiO2 nano rods by electrochemical deposition into an anodic alumina template. J Electron Mater 45(8):4228–4236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jang YJ, Jang YH, Kim DH (2015) Nanostructured Carbon-TiO2 Shells onto silica beads as a promising candidate for the alternative photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells. Sci Adv Mater 7:956–963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kang M, Kim H-S (2016) Microwave-assisted facile and ultrafast growth of ZnO nanostructures and proposition of alternative microwave-assisted methods to address growth stoppage. Sci Rep 6:24870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Keihan AH, Hosseinzadeh R, Farhadian M, Kooshki H, Hosseinzadeh G (2016) Solvothermal preparation of Ag nanoparticle and graphene co-loaded TiO2 for the photocatalytic degradation of paraoxon pesticide under visible light irradiation. RSC Adv 6:83673–83687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Khaki MRD, Shafeeyan MS, Raman AAA, Daud WMAW (2017) Application of doped photocatalysts for organic pollutant degradation-A review. J Environ Econ Manag 198:78–94Google Scholar
  15. Khin MM, Nair AS, Babu VJ, Murugan R, Ramakrishna S (2012) A review on nanomaterials for environmental remediation. Energy Environ Sci 5:8075–8109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kołodziejczak-Radzimska A, Jesionowski T (2014) Zinc oxide- from synthesis to application: a review. Materials 7:2833–2881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kumar R, Al-Dossary O, Kumar G, Umar A (2015) Zinc oxide nanostructures for NO2 gas-sensor applications: a review. Nano-Micro Lett 7:97–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Li B, Wang Y (2009) Facile synthesis and enhanced photocatalytic performance of flower-like ZnO hierarchical microstructures. J Phys Chem C 114:890–896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Li P, Wei Z, Wu T, Peng Q, Li Y (2011) Au- ZnO hybrid nanopyramids and their photocatalytic properties. J Am Chem Soc 133:5660–5663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Liang S, Xiao K, Mo Y, Huang X (2012) A novel ZnO nanoparticle blended polyvinylidene fluoride membrane for anti-irreversible fouling. J Membr Sci Technol 394:184–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Liu Y, Goebl J, Yin Y (2013) Templated synthesis of nanostructured materials. Chem Soc Rev 42:2610–2653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Luo J, Ma S, Sun A, Cheng L, Yang G, Wang T, Li W, Li X, Mao Y, Gz D (2014) Ethanol sensing enhancement by optimizing ZnO nanostructure: from 1D nanorods to 3D nanoflower. Mater Lett 137:17–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lv H, Ji G, Yang Z, Liu Y, Zhang X, Liu W, Zhang H (2015) Enhancement photocatalytic activity of the graphite-like C3N4 coated hollow pencil-like ZnO. J Colloid Interface Sci 450:381–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ma R, Wang L, Wang S, Wang C, Xiao F-S (2017) Eco-friendly photocatalysts achieved by zeolite fixing. Appl Catal B 212:193–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Macias G, Hernández-Eguía LP, Ferré-Borrull J, Pallares J, Marsal LF (2013) Gold-coated ordered nanoporous anodic alumina bilayers for future label-free interferometric biosensors. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 5:8093–8098CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Orge C, Faria J, Pereira M (2017) Photocatalytic ozonation of aniline with TiO2-carbon composite materials. J Environ Econ Manag 195:208–215Google Scholar
  27. Perez-Page M, Yu E, Li J, Rahman M, Dryden DM, Vidu R, Stroeve P (2016) Template-based syntheses for shape controlled nanostructures. Adv Colloid Interface Sci 234:51–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Poinern GEJ, Ali N, Fawcett D (2011) Progress in nano-engineered anodic aluminum oxide membrane development. Materials 4:487–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Qi L, Li H, Dong L (2013) Simple synthesis of flower-like ZnO by a dextran assisted solution route and their photocatalytic degradation property. Mater Lett 107:354–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Raula M, Rashid MH, Paira TK, Dinda E, Mandal TK (2010) Ascorbate-assisted growth of hierarchical ZnO nanostructures: sphere, spindle, and flower and their catalytic properties. Langmuir 26:8769–8782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Samantilleke AP, Carneiro JO, Azevedo S, Thuy T, Teixeira V (2013) Electrochemical anodizing, structural and mechanical characterization of nanoporous alumina templates. Trans Tech Publ 25:77–89Google Scholar
  32. Shi R, Yang P, Dong X, Ma Q, Zhang A (2013) A Growth of flower-like ZnO on ZnO nanorod arrays created on zinc substrate through low-temperature hydrothermal synthesis. Appl Surf Sci 264:162–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Trandafilović L, Jovanović D, Zhang X, Ptasińska S, Dramićanin M (2017) Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue and methyl orange by ZnO: Eu nanoparticles. App Catal B 203:740–752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Vaiano V, Sacco O, Sannino D, Ciambelli P (2015) Nanostructured N-doped TiO2 coated on glass spheres for the photocatalytic removal of organic dyes under UV or visible light irradiation. App Catal B 170:153–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wang J-J, Jing Y-H, Ouyang T, Chang C-T (2015) Preparation of 13X from waste quartz and photocatalytic reaction of methyl orange on TiO2/ZSM-5, 13X and Y-zeolite. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 15:6141–6149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Yu C, Yang K, Xie Y, Fan Q, Jimmy CY, Shu Q, Wang C (2013) Novel hollow Pt-ZnO nanocomposite microspheres with hierarchical structure and enhanced photocatalytic activity and stability. Nanoscale 5:2142–2151CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, School of ScienceUniversity of Management and TechnologyLahorePakistan
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryForman Christian College (A Chartered University)LahorePakistan
  3. 3.Ibn-E-Sina Institute of TechnologyIslamabadPakistan

Personalised recommendations