PLL-alginate and the HPMC-EC hybrid coating over the 3D DNA nanocubes as compact nanoparticles for oral administration
Diabetes Type 2 has been quite difficult to treat/manage with elevated fasting/postprandial glycemic levels. Although this metabolic disorder mostly affected older people, recently a big population of young people developed either pre-diabetes or maturity-onset diabetes-mellitus of young (MODY). A Sulphonylurea class of drugs (SUs) has been used for decades to treat/manage diabetes Type 2. However, sustained release formulations of SUs pose a great risk of hypoglycemia due to the burst insulin release with poor control on fasting glycemic levels with pancreatic beta-cells to undergo exhaustion and decreased beta-cells mass with time and decreased the ability to produce/release insulin on chronic stages. This complication augments alpha cells to secrete glucagon due to feedback stimulation. However, Vildagliptin (VI) as a potent DPP-4 inhibitor has incretin-mediated (GLP1 and GIP), and glucose-dependent mechanism of action to stimulate beta-cells postprandial and wreck the secretion of glucagon from alpha cells. It was reported to improve beta-cells mass with time due to hormonal (incretin elevating) mechanism of action and need to decrease the dose after a few years of administration due to improved ability of the pancreas to release insulin. Herein, we report gastro-retentive HPMC-EC/Alg-PLL hybrid coating over the VI loaded 3D DNA-nanocubes through the electrostatic-interactions/solvent-evaporation techniques to make HPMC-EC/Alg-PLL-DNA-VI hybrid nanoparticles. We attained more stable nanoparticles with better size-uniformity (25–50 nm diameter), having a smooth surface with Entrapment efficiency (E.E%) ≈ 95% and sustained VI release up to 18 ± 4 h than our previous studies (35–2500 nm diameter) (E.E% ≈ 74–92% and prolonged VI release ≈ 15 ± 6 h). We observed superior in vivo GLP-1 and glycemic levels. Hence, hybrid nanoparticles being gastro-retentive released VI slowly to the target site (intestine + blood) in vivo without damaging the islets of Langerhans observed from the histological analysis of the pancreas after treatment duration.
KeywordsDiabetes type 2 HPMC-EC/Alg-PLL-DNA-Vl hybrid nanoparticles, GLP1
We highly acknowledge State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Sciences, Nanjing University for support. We acknowledge Maryam Sharif, Production Officer, High-Q/Pharma Pvt. Ltd. Pakistan for donating us pure-VI and polymers for this work. Special thanks to Dr. Chen Yalan of Nanjing University for support.
MMFAB designed the study, and performed most of the experiments and prepared the manuscript. MS, AAM, MN, FM, FR, MAF, RM, SK, MA, SU and MH assisted the work. WC, GJK and MTA gave expert opinions about the study.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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