Dye degradation property of cobalt and manganese doped iron oxide nanoparticles

  • A. Wahab
  • M. Imran
  • M. IkramEmail author
  • M. Naz
  • M. Aqeel
  • A. Rafiq
  • H. Majeed
  • S. Ali
Original Article


Cobalt (Co) and manganese (Mn) doped iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were synthesized using co-precipitation. Mn and Co (8 and 16%) were added gradually to Fe3O4 nanoparticles followed by annealing at 1000 °C. Co and Mn-doped Fe3O4 revealed cubic structure well matched to JCPDS # 01-089-2807 and 01-077-0426 respectively with crystallite size 8–21 nm confirmed by XRD. Mixing of Co and Mn improved absorption range toward longer wavelength as evident from UV–Vis spectroscopy. However, morphology of doped NPs was spherical and agglomerated visualized through field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Moreover, presence of metal–oxygen bond vibration in Co and Mn doped NPs was observed at 600 nm. On the other hand, saturation magnetization was highest for 16% Co-doped Fe3O4 attributed to excellent magnetic nature of cobalt nanoparticles. These findings showed superior performance of Co-doped magnetite compared to undoped and has been an interesting candidate to be used as nanocatalyst to replace conventional waste water management methods.


Co-precipitation Doping Magnetic properties FTIR XRD Photocatalytic activity 



This work is supported by higher education commission (HEC), Pakistan through startup research Grant No. 21-1669/SRGP/R&D/HEC/2017 and CAS-TWAS President’s Fellowship for international PhD students China.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have confirmed this manuscript has no conflict of interest.


  1. Adur AJ, Nandini N, Mayachar KS, Ramya R, Srinatha N (2018) Bio-synthesis and antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles using anaerobically digested parthenium slurry. J Photochem Photobiol B 183:30–34Google Scholar
  2. Baldi G, Bonacchi D, Innocenti C et al (2007) Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles: the control of the particle size and surface state and their effects on magnetic properties. J Magn Magn Mater 311:10–16. Google Scholar
  3. Bo W, Zhenyu Z, Keke C et al (2018) New deformation-induced nanostructure in silicon. Nano Lett 18(7):4611–4617Google Scholar
  4. Chen S, Klabunde, et al (1996) Size-dependent magnetic properties of MnFe2O4 fine particles synthesized by coprecipitation. Phys Rev B Condens Matter 54:9288–9296Google Scholar
  5. Chen D, Zhang Y, Kang Z (2013) A low temperature synthesis of MnFe2O4 nanocrystals by microwave-assisted ball-milling. Chem Eng J 215–216:235–239. Google Scholar
  6. Cornell RM, Schwertmann U (2003) The iron oxides. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  7. Dhanakotti RB, Kaliyamoorthy V, Mane Prabhu KB et al (2015) Structural and magnetic properties of cobalt-doped iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by solution combustion method for biomedical applications. Int J Nanomed 10(Suppl 1):189. Google Scholar
  8. Dumitrache F, Morjan I, Alexandrescu R et al (2005) Iron–iron oxide core–shell nanoparticles synthesized by laser pyrolysis followed by superficial oxidation. Appl Surf Sci 247:25–31. Google Scholar
  9. Dun C et al (2017) Self-assembled heterostructures: selective growth of metallic nanoparticles on V2–VI3 nanoplates. Adv Mater 29:1702968Google Scholar
  10. Dupuis C, Beaudoin G (2011) Discriminant diagrams for iron oxide trace element fingerprinting of mineral deposit types. Miner Depos 46:319–335. Google Scholar
  11. Gabal MA, Ata-Allah SS (2004) Concerning the cation distribution in MnFe2O4 synthesized through the thermal decomposition of oxalates. J Phys Chem Solids 65:995–1003. Google Scholar
  12. Ghoreishi SM, Haghighi R (2003) Chemical catalytic reaction and biological oxidation for treatment of non-biodegradable textile effluent. Chem Eng J 95:163–169. Google Scholar
  13. Ghosh SK, Kundu S, Mandal M, Pal* T (2002) Silver and gold nanocluster catalyzed reduction of methylene blue by arsine in a micellar medium. Bull Mater Sci. Google Scholar
  14. Goodarz Naseri M, Saion EB, Abbastabar Ahangar H et al (2010) Simple synthesis and characterization of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles by a thermal treatment method. J Nanomater. Google Scholar
  15. Gupta VK, Jain R, Mittal A et al (2007) Photochemical degradation of the hazardous dye Safranin-T using TiO2 catalyst. J Colloid Interface Sci 309:464–469. Google Scholar
  16. Hastings JM, Corliss LM (1956) Neutron diffraction study of manganese ferrite. Phys Rev 104:328–331. Google Scholar
  17. Hazarika M, Chinnamuthu P, Borah JP (2018) MWCNT decorated MnFe2O4 nanoparticles as an efficient photo-catalyst for phenol degradation. J Mater Sci Mater Electron 29:12231–12240. Google Scholar
  18. Hirano S, Yogo T, Kikuta K et al (1993) Preparation and Phase separation behavior of (Co,Fe)3O4 films. J Am Ceram Soc 76:1788–1792. Google Scholar
  19. Iqubal MA, Sharma R, Kamaluddin K (2016) Surface interaction of ribonucleic acid constituents with spinel ferrite nanoparticles: a prebiotic chemistry experiment. RSC Adv 6:68574–68583. Google Scholar
  20. Janot R, Guérard D (2002) One-step synthesis of maghemite nanometric powders by ball-milling. J Alloys Compd 333:302–307. Google Scholar
  21. Kalam A, Al-Sehemi AG, Assiri M et al (2018) Modified solvothermal synthesis of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) magnetic nanoparticles photocatalysts for degradation of methylene blue with H2O2/visible light. Results Phys 8:1046–1053. Google Scholar
  22. Kashyap S, Woehl TJ, Liu X et al (2014) Nucleation of iron oxide nanoparticles mediated by Mms6 protein in situ. ACS Nano 8:9097–9106. Google Scholar
  23. Khehra MS, Saini HS, Sharma DK et al (2006) Biodegradation of azo dye C.I. Acid red 88 by an anoxic–aerobic sequential bioreactor. Dye Pigment 70:1–7. Google Scholar
  24. Krishnan KM (2010) Biomedical nanomagnetics: a spin through possibilities in imaging, diagnostics, and therapy. IEEE Trans Magn 46:2523–2558. Google Scholar
  25. Lee N, Schuck PJ, Nico PS, Gilbert B (2015) Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy of organic molecules on magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles. J Phys Chem Lett 6:970–974. Google Scholar
  26. Li F, Wang H, Wang L, Wang J (2007) Magnetic properties of ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles produced by a low-temperature solid-state reaction method. J Magn Magn Mater 309:295–299. Google Scholar
  27. Liu S, Li Z, Wang X-X et al (2017a) Biomacromolecule-assisted synthesis and electrocapacitive behavior of manganese ferrite nanoparticles. Int J Electrochem Sci 12:11244–11255. Google Scholar
  28. Liu Y, Wu N, Wang Z et al (2017b) Fe3O4 nanoparticles encapsulated in multi-walled carbon nanotubes possess superior lithium storage capability. New J Chem 41:6241–6250. Google Scholar
  29. Martinez-Vargas S, Martínez AI, Hernández-Beteta EE et al (2017) Arsenic adsorption on cobalt and manganese ferrite nanoparticles. J Mater Sci 52:6205–6215. Google Scholar
  30. Mathew DS, Juang R-S (2007) An overview of the structure and magnetism of spinel ferrite nanoparticles and their synthesis in microemulsions. Chem Eng J 129:51–65. Google Scholar
  31. Naz M, Haider A, Ikram M, et al (2017) Green synthesis (A. indica seed extract) of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), characterization, their catalytic and bactericidal action potential. Nanosci Nanotechnol Lett 9:1649–1655. Google Scholar
  32. Ohkoshi S, Namai A, Yoshikiyo M et al (2016) Multimetal-substituted epsilon-iron oxide ϵ-Ga0.31 Ti0.05 Co0.05 Fe1.59 O3 for next-generation magnetic recording tape in the big-data era. Angew Chemie Int Ed 55:11403–11406. Google Scholar
  33. Otero-Lorenzo R, Ramos-Docampo MA, Rodríguez-González B et al (2017) Solvothermal clustering of magnetic spinel ferrite nanocrystals: a Raman perspective. Chem Mater 29:8729–8736. Google Scholar
  34. Panda RK, Behera D (2015) Studies on electric and magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite and its modified systemsGoogle Scholar
  35. Pereira C, Pereira AM, Fernandes C et al (2012) Superparamagnetic MFe2O4 (M = Fe, Co, Mn) nanoparticles: tuning the particle size and magnetic properties through a novel one-step coprecipitation route. Chem Mater 24:1496–1504. Google Scholar
  36. Pham AL-T, Lee C, Doyle FM, Sedlak DL (2009) A silica-supported iron oxide catalyst capable of activating hydrogen peroxide at neutral pH values. Environ Sci Technol 43:8930–8935. Google Scholar
  37. Prabhakaran T, Mangalaraja RV, Denardin JC (2018) Controlling the size and magnetic properties of nano CoFe2O4 by microwave assisted co-precipitation method. Mater Res Express 5:26102. Google Scholar
  38. Rafique MY, Pan L-Q, Javed Q et al (2013) Growth of monodisperse nanospheres of MnFe2O4 with enhanced magnetic and optical properties. Chin Phys B 22:107101. Google Scholar
  39. Rashid Z, Naeimi H, Zarnani A-H et al (2016) Fast and highly efficient purification of 6 × histidine-tagged recombinant proteins by Ni-decorated MnFe2O4 @SiO2 @NH2 @2AB as novel and efficient affinity adsorbent magnetic nanoparticles. RSC Adv 6:36840–36848. Google Scholar
  40. Robinson T, McMullan G, Marchant R, Nigam P (2001) Remediation of dyes in textile effluent: a critical review on current treatment technologies with a proposed alternative. Bioresour Technol 77:247–255. Google Scholar
  41. Sadiq I, Naseem S, Naeem Ashiq M et al (2015) Structural and dielectric properties of doped ferrite nanomaterials suitable for microwave and biomedical applications. Prog Nat Sci Mater Int 25:419–424. Google Scholar
  42. Sanfelice RC, Mercante LA, Pavinatto A et al (2017) Hybrid composite material based on polythiophene derivative nanofibers modified with gold nanoparticles for optoelectronics applications. J Mater Sci 52:1919–1929Google Scholar
  43. Sha AL, Ra H, Aa A et al (2017) Magnetic hyperthermia using cobalt ferrite nanoparticles: the influence of particle size. Int J Adv Technol 8:1–6. Google Scholar
  44. Shouheng Sun H, Zeng DB, Robinson et al (2003) Monodisperse MFe2O4 (M = Fe, Co, Mn) nanoparticles.
  45. Singh G, Chan H, Baskin A et al (2014) Self-assembly of magnetite nanocubes into helical superstructures. Science 345:1149–1153. Google Scholar
  46. Szyndler MW, Corn RM (2012) Self-Assembly of flux-closure polygons from magnetite nanocubes. J Phys Chem Lett 3:2320–2325. Google Scholar
  47. Tang ZX, Nafis S, Sorensen CM et al (1989) Magnetic properties of aerosol synthesized iron oxide particles. J Magn Magn Mater 80:285–289. Google Scholar
  48. Tian Y, Yu B, Li X, Li K (2011) Facile solvothermal synthesis of monodisperse Fe3O4 nanocrystals with precise size control of one nanometre as potential MRI contrast agents. J Mater Chem 21:2476. Google Scholar
  49. Ulbrich K, Holá K, Šubr V et al (2016) Targeted drug delivery with polymers and magnetic nanoparticles: covalent and noncovalent approaches, release control, and clinical studies. Chem Rev 116:5338–5431. Google Scholar
  50. Verma S, Joy PA, Khollam YB et al (2004) Synthesis of nanosized MgFe2O4 powders by microwave hydrothermal method. Mater Lett 58:1092–1095. Google Scholar
  51. Wang C, Yediler A, Lienert D et al (2003) Ozonation of an azo dye C.I. Remazol Black 5 and toxicological assessment of its oxidation products. Chemosphere 52:1225–1232. Google Scholar
  52. Wu YL, Wang QH, Wang L, Zhao HY (2013) Preparation of ZnFe2O4 nanometer powders by sol–gel method and research about its electrochemical performance. Adv Mater Res 743:179–182. Google Scholar
  53. Yáñez-Vilar S, Sánchez-Andújar M, Gómez-Aguirre C et al (2009) A simple solvothermal synthesis of MFe2O4 (M = Mn, Co and Ni) nanoparticles. J Solid State Chem 182:2685–2690. Google Scholar
  54. Zhang L, Wang G, Yu F et al (2018) Facile synthesis of hollow MnFe2O4 nanoboxes based on galvanic replacement reaction for fast and sensitive VOCs sensor. Sensors Actuators B Chem 258:589–596. Google Scholar
  55. Zhenyu Z, Yaxing S, Chaoge X et al (2012a) A novel model for undeformed nanometer chips of soft-brittle HgCdTe films induced by ultrafine diamond grits. Script Materi 67(2):197–200Google Scholar
  56. Zhenyu Z, Fengwei H, Xianzhong Z et al (2012b) Fabrication and size prediction of crystalline nanoparticles of silicon induced by nanogrinding with ultrafine diamond grits. Script Materi 67:657–660Google Scholar
  57. Zhenyu Z, Yaxing S, Fengwei H et al (2012c) Nanoscale material removal mechanism of soft-brittle HgCdTe single crystals under nanogrinding by ultrafine diamond grits. Tribo Let 46(1):95 &#8211Google Scholar
  58. Zhenyu Z, Xianzhong Z, Chaoge X et al (2013a) Characterization of nanoscale chips and a novel model for face nanogrinding on soft-brittle HgCdTe Films. Tribo let 49(1):203–215Google Scholar
  59. ZhenYu Z, YanXia H, DongMing G (2013b) A model for nanogrinding based on direct evidence of ground chips of silicon wafers. Sci China Tech Sci 56(9):2099–2108Google Scholar
  60. Zhenyu Z, Bo W, Renke K et al (2015) Changes in surface layer of silicon wafers from diamond scratching. CIRP Ann 64(1):349–352Google Scholar
  61. Zhenyu Z, Bo W, Ping Z (2016a) A novel approach of chemical mechanical polishing for cadmium zinc telluride wafers. Sci Rep 6:26891Google Scholar
  62. Zhenyu Z, Bo W, Ping Z (2016b) A novel approach of chemical mechanical polishing using environment-friendly slurry for mercury cadmium telluride semiconductors. Sci Rep 6:22466Google Scholar
  63. Zhenyu Z, Junfeng C, Bo, Wang et al (2017) A novel approach of mechanical chemical grinding. J Alloy Comp 726:514 – 24Google Scholar
  64. Zhenyu Z, Zhifeng S, Yuefeng D et al (2018) A novel approach of chemical mechanical polishing for a titanium alloy using an environment-friendly slurry. Appl Surf Sci 427:409–415Google Scholar
  65. Zhenyu Z, Junfeng C, Jiabo Z et al (2019) Environment friendly chemical mechanical polishing of copper. Appl Surf Sci 467–468:5–11Google Scholar
  66. Zhao Z et al (2018) Biobased composites prepared using an environmentally friendly water-slurry methodology. Ind Eng Chem Res 57:7881–7888Google Scholar

Copyright information

© King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Solar Cell Applications Research Lab, Department of PhysicsGovernment College UniversityLahorePakistan
  2. 2.Technical Institute of Physics and ChemistryChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  4. 4.Biochemistry Lab, Department of ChemistryGovernment College University LahoreLahorePakistan
  5. 5.Department of BotanyGovernment College UniversityLahorePakistan
  6. 6.Department of PhysicsRiphah Institute of Computing and Applied Sciences (RICAS), Riphah International UniversityLahorePakistan

Personalised recommendations